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Ground

Architecture  Grotto  Grounds

ground plan - a floor plan for the ground level of a building
floor plan - scale drawing of a horizontal section through a building at a given level; contrasts with elevation
Translations ...


Ground Floor of "Freedom Tower"
By Jackie Craven
Architect David Childs adapted plans for the proposed "Freedom Tower," giving the skyscraper a symmetrical, square footprint.

HumanitiesWeb.org - Glossary definition: Foreground Foreground
The area of a picture or field of vision, often at the bottom, that appears to be closest to the viewer. Also, to give priority to one aspect of a thing over another.

Grounds - Wooden strips of plaster thickness found behind inside window and door casings and baseboards to provide adequate nailing surface.
Glass Block - A window type formed by a compilation of small translucent cubes of glass.

Ground Heave: Swelling of clay sub-soil due to absorption of moisture: can cause an upward movement in foundations.
Gully: An opening into a drain, normally at ground level, placed to receive water etc. from downpipes and wastepipes.

Ground
in painting, the prepared surface of the support to which the paint is applied.
Ground plan ...

Background Drawing - A simplified floor plan of a building, used to help in coordinating the preparation of shop drawings for building services (such as air conditioning) ...

Background Noise -T The total noise floor from all sources of interference in a measurement system, independent of the presence of a data signal ...

Dead-ground - Close to the wall, where the defenders can't shoot.
Diaper work - Decoration of squares or lozenges.
Diaphragm - Wall running up to the roof-ridge.

Ground glass
- obscure glass formed by grinding one face, usually with sand.

Ground floor rooms often have quite small windows to the street, covered with heavy grilles. The grilles themselves, as in the case of the Palazzo Pitti, were often fine works of art, their metallic quality being a foil to the rusticated stonework.

GROUND HEAVE - Swelling of clay sub-soil due to absorption of moisture, or tree removal: can cause an upward movement in foundations.
GROUT - Filling for joists or cracks, especially in tiling.

ground plan or floor plan: Horizontal cross-section of a building as the building would look at ground level. A ground plan shows the basic outlined shape of a building and, usually, the outlines of other interior and exterior features.

The ground floor of this building is rusticated while the rest is of smooth red brick. The lintels and sills are also rusticated, and on the tower and the bay window, a continuous band of rough stone continues this motif.

Its ground plan is a Latin cross, with comparatively wide transept. But the plan is made complex and is visually disguised from the exterior by the accretion of numerous side chapels which cluster around it at different angles, ...

Underground room, usually at E end of church.
Curtain
A connecting wall between towers.

underground room, often, but not always, beneath the east end of a church.
CUPOLA
a small, usually square or circular, domed turret surmounting the roof, usually containing a clock and/or a bell.

Underground or half underground room usually below the east end of a church.
Ring Crypt.
Early mediaeval circular or polygonal corridor crypt surrounding the apse of a church and often used with chambers for relics and the pilgrims visiting these.

An underground chamber.
Curvilinear
Flowing tracery of windows as seen in the latter period of the Decorated style.

On what grounds are heretics strangers and enemies to the apostles, if it is not from the difference of their teaching, which each individual of his own mere will has either advanced or received.

Found or ground
Classified under:
Verbs of thinking, judging, analyzing, doubting ...

Grade - Ground level.
Grout - A mixture of cement, sand and water used to fill cracks and cavities. Sometimes used under base plates to obtain uniform bearing surfaces. Often it refers to material used around ceramic tile as filler.

A vaulted underground room usually at the east end of the church, beneath the chancel. In medieval times the crypt was a stone chapel built beneath the floor of the church to hold the tombs of the deceased.
E
EARLY ENGLISH ...

Crypt, underground chamber beneath the altar in a church, usually containing a saint's relics. It sometimes extends as far as the crossing, so that the choir and altar are sometimes considerably higher than the nave and aisle.
...

CRYPT
Underground or half-underground area, usually below the east end of a church.
CUPOLA
Small polygonal or circular domed turret crowning a roof.

Dead-ground - close to the wall, where the defenders can't shoot.
Desmene - area of land reserved for a lord.
Diaper work - decoration of squares or lozenges.
Diaphragm - wall running up to the roof-ridge.

Crypt. Underground chamber or vault, usually beneath the presbytery of a church and used for burial or sometimes as an oratory.
Cupola. *Dome.
Decumanus. * Cardo.

Transept The ground plan of many churches forms the shape of a cross. The two 'arms' of the cross are the transepts.
Return to page of Things to Do
Return to Sacred Space index page ...

Cawood Castle, grounds of Cawood , Yorkshire, England
Ghost Haunting, Pregnant Woman ...

Cistern - an underground area used to store water. Unlike a well, water does not naturally flow into a cistern from a subterranean source.
Cornice - a ledge-like crown projecting from a wall.

The jail, usually a ground level in one of the towers.
Embrasure:
die Schiessscharte ...

sala terrena: a ground-floor room giving access to the garden, often decorated naturalistically or like a grotto.
Salomonic term: descriptive of a column twisted like barley-sugar.

B Bailey: The ward or courtyard inside the castle walls, includes exercise area, parade ground, emergency corral. Ballflower: A globular motif often used in concave moldings of English Gothic architecture.

Often used to ventilate the underside of timber ground floors, fireplaces or a roof space.
Apron - a metal strip, usually lead or zinc, used as a seal. Often fitted to chimney stacks and tile hanging. Also a section of wall below a window.

grand style the style of painting, promoted by Reynolds as President of the Royal Academy, in which the figures and background are painted in highly formal and idealized ways; ...

Example 1: Gymnasiums and sanctuaries palePale comes from the Latin palus=stake, and means a pointed wooden stake driven into the ground to make a paling fence. palissadePalissade is a French term for a fence made of pales.

CATCH BASIN: An underground structure for drainage into which the water from a roof or floor will drain. It is connected with a sewer drain or sump pump.CAULKING: Soft, elastic material used to seal small openings around doors, windows, etc.

not by aisle posts set on the floor Basinettower, turret or other construction that projects out from a wall length or commonly found projecting from the corner junction of two walls, that allows defenders to both see and fire upon the ground in ...

Causeway A bank built across marshy ground with a path running along the top
Celestory Windows or opening set high in a wall to illuminate the area below
Cell A monastic dependency of a religious house ...

Base crucks have blades rising from ground level to a tie-beam or collar-beam which supports the roof timbers. Full crucks have blades rising from ground level to the apex of the roof, serving as the main members of a roof truss.

sloping board fixed to the edge of a gable roof, often decorated by fretwork or similar artistry Bay A projection from the outside wall, forming a bow window if curved, a faceted window or bay if angled, an oriel window if suspended above ground ...

With the Gothic vault, a ground plan could take on a variety of shapes.

The Khajuraho temples now grace the posters of the Indian Tourist office, and numerous films have been shot at the temple grounds.

quonset - a half-cylinder on the ground that is covered with corrugated metal. The frame of the original 16 x 36 foot Quonset was curved steel T-ribs, its floor tongue-and-groove and its exterior galvanized.

A-Frame - The steep slope of the A-frame roof is designed to help heavy snow to slide to the ground instead of remaining on top of the house and weighing it down. At the same time, the sloped roof provides two other benefits.

Horizontal low to the ground design
Variety of shapes: square, rectangular, L-, T-, or Y-shaped
One or two stories with single-story wings or porches
Hipped or low-pitched gable roofs with broad eaves extending well beyond the walls ...

The logical sense, that demanded the grounding of every downward thrust of vault rib either at the pavement or on the abacus of the pier or column caps, was not operative, ...

The theory gained some of its strongest ground early on in French academia. In 1979 Jean-Fran├žois Lyotard wrote a short but influential work The Postmodern Condition : a report on knowledge.

For purposes of defense early settlers naturally chose elevated ground, frequently a hill with precipitous sides. These early citadels became in many parts of the world the nuclei of large cities which grew up on the surrounding lower ground.

Horizontal, rambling layout: long, narrow, and low to the ground
Attached garages, with the garage often an exterior focal point
Rectangular, L-shaped, or U-shaped design
Casement windows, picture windows, and sliding windows ...

Thestone was initially sealed by a layer of size, perhaps animal glue;next a thin layer of lead white was applied to form a ground; ...

Geodesic Domes have been used for just about every building type from playground equipment to military radar stations, to civic and recreation buildings, exhibition attractions, and single family homes.

Cryptoporticus - concealed or covered passage, generally underground, though lighted and ventilated from the open air. One of the best-known examples is the crypto-porticus under the palaces of the Caesars in Rome.

Stylobate: the masonry at ground level on which a column rests
Templum: a space defined by ritual auguries and auspices; many templa were not considered aedes, e.g., the Rostra and Curia.

Solar: originally a room above ground level, but commonly applied to the great chamber or a private sitting room off the great hall
Springald: war engine of the catapult type, employing tension ...

Foundation - The stonework below the ground that supports the entire structure.
Fresco - Painting on wet plaster whereby the pigment becomes absorbed into the wall rather than sitting on top of it.

The culmination of all the classical revivals, buildings in the Beaux Arts style feature symmetrical massing, flat roofs, and a hierarchy of interior spaces expressed externally by a rusticated ground floor, grand entrance portals, ...

Oriel Window: Begins above the ground and heads up.
Bay Window: See top of page.
Reveal Window: Just sticks out from the wall.
Source:Victorian Architecture Vocabulary ...

A ceiling with a height two-stories above ground level, employed to open up a space with additional light and air. Often a balcony on the second floor overlooks the vaulted ceiling and room below.
Veneer ...

Windows:
- Oriel Window: begins above the ground and goes up from there.
- Bay Window: runs from the floor to the ceiling.
- Reveal Window: just sticks out from the wall.

Line-boards - Timber boards laid on the ground and used to mark out the widths and position of inner and outer walls and the foundations (setting-out), prior to excavating.
Back to top ...

Turret
A small tower, usually starting at some distance from the ground, attached to a building such as a castle or fortress.
Tuscan Order
A Roman order resembling the Doric, but with a base and an unfluted shaft.

Floor covering of marble chips and cement ground to a smooth finish. Metal strips are used to separate different colours and create designs
Thermal Stress
Stress within a material caused by temperature variations ...

The upper slope is usually not visible from the ground. The term "mansard" comes from the French architect Fran├žois Mansart (1598-1666) of the Beaux Arts School of Architecture in Paris, France.

CRYPT - A vaulted underground room beneath a church which may be used either as a burial place or for storage.

bas-relief : sculpture in which the carved forms project only slightly from the background. (also called low relief)
bay : part of the building comprised between two vertical shafts or supporting columns ...

Basement - Lowest, subordinate story of building often either entirely or partially below ground level.
Belt course - Narrow horizontal band projecting from exterior walls, usually defining interior floor levels.

Turret - A small tower, frequently ornamental, beginning above the ground level.

Tuscan - The Tuscan Order is the most basic of all columns, and is plain and unfluted.

A vaulted space under part of a building, wholly or partly underground; in Medieval churches, normally the portion under an apse or a chevet.

Sleepers - Any of the pieces of timber. Stone, iron or steel, on or near the ground level, to support some superstructure, to steady framework, to receive floor joists.

bay window A projecting form containing windows that rises from the ground or from some other support, such as a porch roof; see also oriel.

Stucco : Traditionally, a soft, workable plaster sometimes used in sculpting, primarily it is worked into a decorative background.
Tapestry : A heavy fabric incorporated with intricate design or imagery, used as wall hung decoration or covering.

This Third Ward Bungalow, on the other hand, used the original roof line to add a passive solar room partially below the ground (facing south), thus maintaining its original style.
Offices also used Shed designs, as this one in Oakwood's.

Piano Nobile
The principal reception and living area in an Italian palace, the first floor above the ground. Image courtesy of Gretchen Ranger
Piazza
The Italian term for a city square. Image courtesy of Phil Gruen ...

terrazzo A sturdy flooring finish of marble chips mixed with cement mortar. After drying, the surface is ground and polished.
terreplein In military architecture, the flat roof of a fortification, on which ordnance was mounted.

bastle house or bastel house - a fortified farmhouse found throughout the Border country of Scotland and England. Typically they have thick walls with space on the ground floor for animals and living quarters above.

The sculpture of stone or metal where figures and objects project slightly from the background. This type of decoration can be found on friezes, plaques etc.
Reveal: ...

(The Italian Villa tower, unlike the more common Italianate cupola, arises from the ground as opposed to being supported by a roof.) Most often the tower is either centered on the facade, incorporating the main entry, ...

1. Square or lozenge shaped panes of glass supported by lead strips. In medieval times they were sometimes painted with a yellow stain. They usually form a background for painted figures.
2. Square floor tiles, or slabs.

The square section lowest component of the base of a column. The plain, projecting lowest section of a wall. Timber board placed on edge, on the ground beneath weatherboards, pickets or palings fixed to posts or stumps of a fence.

- A double-storeyed open-sided structure comprising a cattle or cart shelter on the ground floor with a hayloft above.
Lych gate or Lynch gate.

UNDERCROFT: a vaulted room, either underground or with an upper storey. VAULT: an arched or domed, ceiling or roof. VENETIAN WINDOW: another term for PALLADIAN WINDOW. VESTRY: a room attached to a church, in which vestments are kept.

See also: See also: Architecture, House, See, Floor, Tower

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