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Architecture  Richardsonian Romanesque  Ridge board

ridge - a long narrow natural elevation or striation
bank - a long ridge or pile; "a huge bank of earth"
bar - a submerged (or partly submerged) ridge in a river or along a shore; "the boat ran aground on a submerged bar in the river" ...

Ridge Rafter - The wooden member supporting rafter-ends at the ridge of a roof.
Rise - The vertical distance from one stair tread to the next.
Riser - The vertical portion of a step. The board covering the open space between stair treads.

Ridge - The horizontal line at the junction of two roof surfaces where an external angle greater than 180* is formed.
Riprap - Stones or other material placed on a slope to prevent erosion by water action.

Ridge tile / crown tile: A tile which is curved in section, often decorative, used to cover the ridge of a roof
Church of the Good Shepherd
Tie beam: In roof framing, a horizontal timber connecting two opposite rafters at their lowest ends to prevent them from spreading ...

Ridge: The apex of a roof.
Riser: The vertical part of a step or stair.
Rising Damp: Moisture soaking up a wall from below ground, by capillary action causing rot in timbers, plaster decay, decoration failure etc.

~ The highest part or apex of a roof where two slopes meet.
~ Tile A specially shaped angular or half round tile for covering and making weather-tight the ~ of a roof.
Riser The vertical part of a step or stair.

~ Board
Timber running along a ~ and sandwiched between oncoming loose rafters.
Roof Designer ...

~ Board - The horizontal structural member at the top of a roof where the rafters meet.

~ rib: longitudinal rib extending the whole length of a vault.
Rococo: late Baroque phase, highly ornate; usually refers to interior decoration.
Romanesque: in English architecture, the same as Norman, characterised by thick walls, round arches and small windows without tracery.

~ Piece
Horizontal beam along the line where the sloping sides of a roof meet.
Ring of an Arch ...

~ - Uppermost point at which two intersecting planes of a roof meet. Sometimes decorative.
Rock-face - Axe-dressed stone surface.

Roof~ - Summit line of roof.
Rubble - Fill; unsquared stone not laid in courses.
Rustication - Worked ashlar stone with the faces left rough.

A movable bridge; originally moved horizontally like a gangway.

Drawb~ - Lifting bridge that could be raised to keep out an enemy.
Dressing - Carved or smoothed stonework around openings and along edges.
Drum-Tower - A large, circular tower, usually shorter and wider then a normal tower.

Roof ~
The horizontal intersection of two roof slopes at the top of a roof.
Roofline ...

~ roll
- a tightly tied bundle of thatching material, laid along the ~, to give an edge to the final course of thatch and to provide a base for a ~ cap.

~ turret : Found more commonly on churches without towers, located over the crossing and named for their location on the ~ of the roof.

~ - Horizontal top to a pitched roof, usually covered with ~ tiles.
RISER - The vertical part of a step or stair.
RISING DAMP - Moisture soaking up a wall from below ground, by capillary action causing rot in timbers, plaster decay, decoration failure etc.

~ Roll - Rounded cap covering exterior peak of roof
Rincleau - Scroll or vines cut in stone
Roof comb - the structure that tops a pyramid in monumental Mesoamerican architecture ...

~ board:
A thin timber used to align the tops of the rafters. In most roofs the ~ board is not a load bearing member. (Fr. planche (f) faîtière).
~ tile: ...

~: The crest of the glacis.
Ring wall: A stone wall which replaced the timber palisade surrounding the summit of a motte of a 'motte and bailey castle'. Also known as a shell keep.
Ringwork: An earthen defensive enclosure, regardless of period, size or function.

Camb~ - England (16th c.)
Hospital de la Santa Creu - Barcelona - Spain (1905)
Château de Blois - France (1500) ...

Camb~ (England)
Building: King's College Chapel
Date: completed 1547
Exterior view of chapel ...

DRAWB~: A movable bridge. Early drawb~s were removed horizontally like a gangway.
FOSSE: A ditch.
GALLEY: A long passage or room.

Drawb~: a wooden bridge leading to a gateway, capable of being raised or lowered
Drum Tower: a round tower built into a wall
Dungeon: the jail, usually found in one of the towers ...

der Zugbrücke
A wooden bridge, capable of being raised or lowered, used to open a passageway or gate.

A raised ~ or fold formed in sheet metal to provide stiffness
A term indicating articles of hardware designed for application to the surface of the door or frame ...

Offset ~ When the ~ of a joist that has the top chord pitched two ways is not in the center of the member or bay. On The Flat A measurement of distance horizontally on a plan, no slopes involved.

the stacked ~s the horizontally segment a northern-style Hindu temple's shikhara.
see mudrā.

Located on a ~ outside the city of Agrigento, Sicily lie the remains of seven Greek temples called the Valley of the Temples. The Temple of Concordia, built in the 5th century BC, is the best preserved in the Valley and is one of the largest and best preserved Doric style temples still standing.

longitudinal ~ rib: A rib which runs down the apex of the vault in a longitudinal direction. Other types of ribs: diagonal, lierne, tierceron, transverse See also rib vault.
longitudinally-planned building: A building developed along a horizontal axis Contrast with centrally-planned building ...

An ornamental ~ to the top of a wall or roof.
A projecting knob of stylised foliage, associated mainly with Gothic architecture. Crockets are regularly spaced on spires and pinnacles.

A cricket is a ~ structure designed to divert water on a roof. Generally found on the high side of a chimney or the transition from one roof area to another. The cricket is normally the same pitch as the rest of the roof, but not always.

~ - The horizontal line of a roof top.
Road / Street Line - The line defining the said limits of a street.

More elaborate vaults may include ~-ribs along the crown of a vault or bisecting the bays; tiercerons, extra decorative ribs springing from the corners of a bay; and liernes, short decorative ribs in the crown of a vault, not linked to any springing point.

The ~ poles of these houses are parallel to the streets, and hence these houses requiring large, expensive lots. This style comes in simple, inexpensive and expensive forms, depending on the materials used, as the photos show: ...

a ~d roof having two slopes on each side, the lower slope having the steeper pitch
a metal grating used as a screen, barrier or decorative element as in a window or gateway ...

Some earth mottes were revetted with stone RevetmentRetaining wall Rib vaultingArched roof with ribs of raised moulding at the groins RingworkCircular earthwork of bank and ditch RomanesqueArchitectural style, 8th - 12th century with rounded arches Roof~Summit line of roof ...

Roof~ - summit line of roof.
Roundel - low, circular, semicircular or U-shaped tower for artillery, projecting from the wall face.
Rubble - fill; unsquared stone not laid in courses. Stone construction using irregular stones imbedded in mortar.

And then, east of ~ Road in North Arlington, is the diminutive Pizzaland. This squat, brick-sided structure is less than fifteen feet wide, but it makes up for its small size by shouting its name: the sign is as wide as the building.

Barbican: The gateway or outworks defending the drawb~; An outwork or forward extension of a castle gateway. Bar Hole: Horizontal hole for timber bar used as a door-bolt.

Cruck Beams - pairs of curved timbers, which run from ground level and meet at the ~.
Cut Valley - a gutter at the junction of two roof where the slates or tiles are cut to meet on the valley line.

GABLE: the triangular piece of wall at the end of a ~d roof. GABLET: a small gable (for example, above a lucarne). GADROONING: a simple moulding formed of a line of convex ~s, frequently angled and slightly overlapping. GALLETING: small stones set in a mortar course.

* Barbican - The gateway or outworks defending the drawb~. Known from Antiquity, it seems to have been introduced into western architecture during the Crusades. The outwork usually circular separated from the rest of the fortress by a moat and protecting the main accesses.

~BOARD: Horizontal wood framing member to which the top of rafters are attached. ~ CAP: A wood or metal cap used over roofing at the ~. RIPRAP: Stones placed on a slope to prevent erosion. Also broken stone used for foundation fill. RISE: The vertical height of a roof.

Double-framed: if longitudinal members (such as a ~ beam) are employed. As a rule in such cases the rafters are divided into stronger principals and weaker subsidiary rafters.
Hipped: roof with sloped instead of vertical ends.

Winchester nave and York choir; Westminster Hall, King's College Chapel, Camb~, and St.

Malthoid A bituminous membrane for covering low roofs or floors in the inter war period Mansard-roof Double-pitched roof sloping from ~ to eaves on 2 sides, ...

Repton favoured the idea and designed American gardens for Ash~ and Woburn Abbey. amphitheatreThe etymology of Amphitheatre is from amphi (both, or both sides + theatron (theatre). It means a circular theatre with seating on both sides.

In later vaults there are also ribs running along the ~s of the vault (i e ~-ribs).
VENETIAN WINDOW: round-headed window flanked by two narrower square-headed ones (C17-C18).
VOLUTE: spiral device on the corner of a capital.
VOUSSOIR: wedge-shaped stone, component of an arch.

Examples used as schools or other educational uses include Ash~ House, Bramshill House, Dartington Hall, Harlaxton Manor, Heslington Hall, Prior Park, Scarisbrick Hall, Stowe House, Tring Park & Westonbirt House. Hewell Grange is now an open prison.

A simple salt box roof is pitched with opposed planes of unequal split and, or, differing slopes (like two opposed shed roofs with differing pitches) sharing a common ~. A combined pitched form has a vertical offset along a common ~ line.

King's College Chapel, Camb~
Gothic architecture in Britain has been neatly divided into 4 periods, or styles. The person who did the dividing that has been obediently followed by subsequent generations of writers and historians was Thomas Rickman (1776-1841).

Camb~: MIT Press, 1977.
Muccigrosso, Robert. Celebrating the New World: Chicago 's Columbian Exposition of 1893. Chicago: I.R. Dee, 1993.
Platt, Frederick. America's Gilded Age: Its Architecture and Decoration. South Brunswick: A.S. Barnes, 1976.
White, Samuel D.

Identifying characteristics include a low, horizontal structure, usually one-and-a-half stories (two-story more common in northeastern and mid-western United States); broad overhanging eaves with exposed roof rafters and ~ beams; braces and beams added underneath gables; ...

Antefixae, or Antefix are ornamented tiles on the top of the cornice or eaves at the end of each ~ of tiling, as on the choragic
monument of Lysicrates, at Athens; sometimes of marble, but generally of terra cotta, and ornamented with a mask, honeysuckle,
or other decoration molded on them.

MOT Press, Camb~, Mass. 1996.
"Pavilion Plan... for "zoned living"" Sunset Ideas for Planning Your New Home. Lane Books, Menlo Park, CA. 1967., pg 12.
"A Pavilion Reserved for Recreation"" Sunset Ideas for Recreation Rooms. Lane Books, Menlo Park, CA. 1968, pg 6.
Langdon, Phillip.

Gable Roof -- A roof with a central ~ and one slope at each side.,
Greek Revival Style -- Mid-19th century revival of forms and ornament of architecture of ancient Greece.
Hipped Roof -- A roof with uniform slopes on all four sides.

longitudinal rib / vault (or longitudinal ~ rib) A rib / vault which runs parallel to the nave axis in a longitudinal direction
mausoleum : a monument erected in memory or honour of a person or group. This not a tomb, the person's remains are elsewhere ...

Variations are block capital with chamfers where the angles have triangular chamfers to effect the transition and block capital with ~s where the square shape of the top of the capital is preserved down to the necking by means of ~s at the angles.

gambrel roof — A ~d roof with two slopes on either side, the lower slope having the steeper pitch. Often flared beyond the front and rear of the
house forming a deep overhang. [B] ...

Alexander was born in Vienna, Austria, in 1936, and grew up in England. He attended Camb~ University, where he earned a Bachelor's degree in Architecture and a Master's degree in Mathematics. He earned a Ph.D. in Architecture from Harvard University, and moved to Berkeley in 1963.
License ...

a slab of which the upper face is ~d down the middle, and sometimes hipped at each end.
a projecting stone or piece of timber for the support of a super-incumbent weight.

Two sloping roofs join to create a ~.
Romanesque Style
Develed in Italy and western Europe, Romanesque architecture appeared after the Roman classical period and prior to the Gothic period.

Cresting - A decorative fence-like ornament on the ~ of a roof.
Cupola - A small dome, a rounded roof on a circular or polygonal base crowning a roof or turret. Also, a small, often squarish tower on a roof.

Hornton Stone was used in the building of Oxford and Camb~ Universities, [no-glossary]St Paul's[/no-glossary] and Canterbury Cathedral. It was also the favourite material used by the Sculptors Henry Moore and Eric Gill." ...

Triangular upper part of a wall at the end of a ~d roof.
A water spout projecting from the parapet of a wall or tower, often carved in a human, animal or grotesque shape.

Rafter - Timbers that form the main part of the roof frame going from the wall plate up to the ~.
Back to top
Ranging rod - Section of timber marked to identify the position of brick and block courses or any other part of the construction - basically a measuring stick.
Back to top ...

intrados, the soffit or inner curve of an arch [Latin: intra, within; dorsum, back, ~, slope].
Ipswich window, a type of oriel window with rounded corners and an arched centre-light, sitting above panels of elaborate pargeting.

Mt. Auburn Cemetery Gateway, Camb~, Jacob Bigelow, 1832, rebuilt 1842-43 - Egyptian Revival.
St. William’s Church, Dorchester (demolished), Edward Sheehan, c. 1912 - Spanish Mission style (Image: Dorchester Atheneum).

An autumnal walk around Stockb~
Climbing the Scott Monument in Edinburgh
Andy Warhol exhibition at the Scottish Parliament ...

Purlin - A horizontal timber laid parallel to the wall plate and ~ beam, providing extra support for common rafters.
Quartersawn - Lumber that has been cut so that the grown rings are at an angle of between 45 and 90 degrees to the board face.

purlin In timber roof construction, a secondary horizontal component parallel to the ~ and supported at each end by a rafter.
putto A very young nude boy, sometimes with wings, often seen cavorting in renaissance style works. Plural, putti.

Crocket, an ornament consisting of a projecting piece of sculptured stone or wood. Used to decorate the sloping ~s of gablets, spires, and pinnacles. Usually carved as foliage.

Crossing, the area of a church where the nave is intersected by the transept. ...

For a more detailed account of Carolingian book production see the chapter from the New Camb~ Medieval History entitled Book Production in the Carolingian empire and the spread of the Caroline minuscule.

Rafter Structural members of a roof that support the roof load and run from the ~ to the eaves (overhang).
Rails The horizontal members of a window sash or door panel.

When the dome is erected on a square or rectangular base, resulting in its curved surfaces joining in an apex or ~, it is called a domical vault. There are many other variations of dome shapes, eg an onion dome bulges outwards from its base (in the shape of an onion).

hip roof: a roof with sloping ends instead of verticle ends and sloping sides that meet at a ~.
1. French Regency house ...

The masterpiece of the style, the chapel of King's College (begun 1443), Camb~, achieves a majestic homogeneity through the use of the new fan vaulting, the fan-shaped spreading panels of which are in complete accord with the rectangular panels of the walls and windows.

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Architecture, House, See, Floor, Ornament?

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