Estimation of Distribution Algorithms (EDA), sometimes called Probabilistic Model-Building Genetic Algorithms (PMBGA), are an outgrowth of genetic algorithms.
Nonlinear Estimation Procedures
Least Squares Estimation
Weighted Least Squares
Maximum likelihood and probit/logit models
Function Minimization Algorithms
Start Values, Step Sizes, Convergence Criteria ...
Maximum Likelihood Estimation
Tutorial Slides by Andrew Moore
MLE is a solid tool for learning parameters of a data mining model. It is a methodlogy which tries to do two things.
Using Genetic Algorithm for Parameter Estimation
By Yi Wang
Computer Science Department,Tsinghua University,100084, Beijing, China
"Estimation and Inference by Compact Coding", Wallace and Freeman, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society B 49(3):240--265, 1987
The Computer Journal special issue: MDL vs. MML
"The Maximum Local Mass estimate" ...
This estimation procedure is called inferential statistics. From your sample, you want to know especially the distribution of the sample.
 "Estimation of Fuzzy Membership from Histograms, Information Sciences" by B.B. Devi et al (Vol. 35, 1985, pp. 43-59).
 "Fuzzy Logic" by Bart Kosko and Satoru Isaka (Scientific American, Vol. 269, July 1993, pp. 76).
The concepts of belief state (a set of possible worlds) and state estimation (maintaining the belief state) are introduced in these settings; later in the book, probabilities are added.
Standard techniques are learning confidence intervals (e.g. error bars for neural networks) and general probability density estimation.
In one estimation, it is approximately, 100 teraflops. The processing power of Blue Gene/L supercomputer already crossed 280.6 teraflops - that is 280.6 trillion calculations per second .
More sophisticated models are also possible: higher-order modelling changes its estimation of the current probability of a symbol based on the symbols that precede it (the context), so that in a model for English text, for example, ...
enemy troop locations
estimation of enemy resources
scouting by own units
weak points in the AI's defense ...
The prediction of pharmaceutical responses based on second order polynomial equation, however is often limited to low levels, resulting in the poor estimation of optimal formulations.
His failure to exhibit the proper biological characteristics compromises the Ice Man Hypothesis in their estimations. However, not all villagers react this way. Some - including the one who came to know Data best - are not dissuaded.
well-studied statistical inference techniques available;
flexibility in choosing the component distribution;
obtain a density estimation for each cluster;
a "soft" classification is available.
Spall, J.C. (2003). Introduction to Stochastic Search and Optimization: Estimation, Simulation. Wiley.
In the sub-field of data classification, neural-network methods have been found to be useful alternatives to statistical techniques such as those which involve regression analysis or probability density estimation (e.g., Holmström et al., 1997).
Tracking an object through an image sequence
Mapping a scene to a three-dimensional model of the scene; such a model might be used by a robot to navigate the imaged scene
Estimation of the three-dimensional poses of humans and their limbs ...
Because of these features of genetic algorithm, they are used as general purpose optimization algorithm. They also provide means to search irregular space and hence are applied to a variety of function optimization, parameter estimation and machine ...
both the plant and the estimator are jointly excited by a common input signal.
The fuzzy and artificial neural network-based learning techniques have recently
been identified as new tools for plant estimation.
See also: Distribution, Values, Probability, Information, Process