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Solar wind

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Solar Wind
A time-lapse movie from the SOHO satellite showing the solar wind and a coronal mass ejection. Also visible are two sun-grazing comets that enter the solar atmosphere never to be seen again.
Credit: Courtesy of SOHO consortium.


Solar wind pulses strip
Mars' atmosphere
DR EMILY BALDWIN
ASTRONOMY NOW
Posted: 15 March 2010 ...

solar wind at HighBeam Research
solar wind on Wikipedia
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solar wind. Wikimedia Commons (Public Domain) ...

Solar Wind :
The solar wind is a flux of particles, chiefly protons and electrons together with nuclei of heavier elements in smaller numbers, that are accelerated by the high temperatures of the solar corona, or outer region of the Sun, ...

Solar Wind
Approximately 5 particles cm-3 s-1 at the earth during quiet conditions.
References ...

~
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - Cite This Source
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles (i.e., a plasma) which are ejected from the upper atmosphere of the sun.

~
The solar wind is a continuous stream of ions (electrically charged particles) that are given off by magnetic anomalies on the Sun. The solar wind is emitted where the Sun's magnetic field loops out into space instead of looping back into the Sun.

The ~
"Plumes" of outward flowing, hot gas in the Sun's atmosphere may be one source of the solar "wind" of charged particles.

It takes the solar wind about 4.5 days to reach Earth; it has a velocity of about 250 miles/sec (400 km/sec). Since the particles are emitted from the Sun as the Sun rotates, the solar wind blows in a pinwheel pattern through the solar system.

~ and Magnetosphere
The earth is constantly immersed in the solar wind, a rarefied flow of hot plasma (gas of free electrons and positive ions) emitted by the sun in all directions, a result of the million-degree heat of the sun's outermost layer, the solar corona.

~ Variations
The solar wind is not uniform. Although it is always directed away from the Sun, it changes speed and carries with it magnetic clouds, interacting regions where high speed wind catches up with slow speed wind, and composition variations.

~ Plasma Package for measuring solar wind plasmas and electrons
Fields Package to measure electromagnetic fields
Particles Package for energetic particles, neutrons, gamma-rays, and dust measurements ...

~ An outward flow of fast-moving charged particles from the Sun.
south celestial pole Point on the celestial sphere directly above the Earth's south pole.

~: The charged particles (plasma), primarily protons and electrons, that are continuously emitted from the Sun and stream outward throughout the solar system at speeds of hundreds of kilometers per second.

~: The outward flow of plasma (high energy charged particles from the sun. Average speeds are about 350 km/sec. (go to first use in the text) ...

~: The solar wind streams off of the Sun in all directions. The source of the solar wind is the Sun's hot corona, whose temperature is so high that the Sun's gravity cannot hold on to it.

~ - Supersonic flow of high-speed charged particles continuously blowing off a star (mostly e- and p+). When originating from stars other than the Sun, it is sometimes called a "stellar" wind. The solar wind may be viewed as an extension of the corona into interplanetary space.

~--hot solar plasma spreading from the solar corona in all directions, at a typical speed of 300-700 km/sec. It is caused by the great heat of the corona.
Space tether--see tether, space ...

~
An outward flow of particles (mostly electrons and protons) from the Sun.
south celestial pole
The point directly above the Earth's south pole where the Earth's axis of rotation, if extended, would intersect the celestial sphere.

~
The constant flow of charged particles from the Sun, extending throughout the solar system.
solid planet
A planet composed of rocky materials with relatively thin or non-existent atmospheres.

~
Rapidly moving atoms and ions that escape from the solar corona and blow outward through the solar system.
Special Relativity ...

~
a flow of charged particles that travels from the Sun out into the Solar System.
Solstice
the time of the year when the Sun appears furthest north or south of the celestial equator. The solstices mark the beginning of the Summer and Winter seasons.

~: The stream of charged particles and atoms (mainly ionized hydrogen but actually a mixture of all atoms in the Sun) moving outward all the time from the Sun with low velocities in the range 300-500 kilometers per second.

~. The flow of particles from the Sun in every direction. The 'wind' is an ever present feature of the Sun but the intensity of the wind is dependant on Solar activity.

~ - The hot plasma that flows outward from the Sun
Solidification Age - The amount of time that has passed since a meteorite solidified from the molten state ...

~
A stream of particles such as protons, electrons and ions moving radially outwards from the Sun.
SOLSTICE ...

~: The wind from the Sun. More specifically, particles, usually electrons and protons, continually streaming away from the corona of the Sun. The ~ is extremely sparse, containing only a few fast moving particles per cubic centimeter at the Earth.


~ TERMINATION SHOCK
The solar wind (heliospheric) termination shock is the shock that occurs as the solar wind hits the heliopause and its speed slows greatly (down to about 20 km/s).
...

~- charged particles from the sun that travel into the Solar System at about 1.5 million kph (932,000 mph)
Solstice- the time when the sun reaches its greatest northern or southern declination ...

The ~
The solar corona is the outermost part of the Sun's atmosphere. Coronal holes occur where a region is more tenuous than the surrounding corona and are thought to be the primary source of high-speed streams of charged particles from the Sun.

The ~ is a Electric current—a Plasma —ejected from the stellar atmosphere of the sun. It consists mostly of electrons and protons with energies of about 1 electron volt....
which reaches the Earth and interacts with its geomagnetic field.
The ionospheric layers ...

~. Pioneer-Venus 1 still is in orbit around Venus, using radar to map the planet surface and send back data about the ~. The spacecraft intercepts particles in the ~ as they pass Venus, flying out from the Sun during the 11-year sunspot cycle.

~ termination shock The shock caused by the sudden slowing of ~ as it approaches the heliopause.
Space The area between all of the bodies in the universe. It is not empty! It contains magnetic fields, electromagnetic radiation, gases, dust and other particles.

~
Streams of charged particles flowing from the Sun at millions of kilometers an hour. The composition of this high-speed ~ may vary, but it always streams away from the Sun.

~ A flow of hot charged particles leaving the Sun. [More Info: Field Guide]
south celestial pole Point on the celestial sphere directly above the Earth's south pole.
spacetime A synthesis of the three dimensions of space and of a fourth dimension, time; a hallmark of relativity theory.

~s
As the Sun burns hydrogen at its core, it releases vast amounts of atomic particles, or pieces of atoms into outer space. These atomic particles, along with the Sun's radiation create a sort of wind, known as the ~.

~ - (n.)
The stream of charged subatomic particles flowing steadily outward from the sun.
solid angle - (n.) ...

The ~ has an electron density of about 5 per cc over path lengths of about 150 million km giving an even greater optical depth. This would not affect moonbounce work but would make VHF radio astronomy impossible.

The ~ has large effects on the tails of comets and even has measurable effects on the trajectories of spacecraft.
Spectacular loops and prominences are often visible on the Sun's limb (left).

The ~ is not the major problem for a trip to Mars - shielding agains that is easy enough with a few cms of perspex or a few mm of Al. The real challenge is high-energy cosmic rays.

A model of the ~ which has two thermal components - electron and proton gases of differing temperatures.
Tycho's Star ...

~ (From Stargazers to Starships Glossary - GSFC) A fast outflow of hot gas in all directions from the upper atmosphere of the Sun ("solar corona"), which is too hot to allow the Sun's gravity to hold on to its gas.

solar radii (R.) Solar System ~ continuous stream of charged particles (mostly protons and electrons) ejected radially from the Sun at high velocities. solid that state of matter in which the constituent particles maintain a permanent relation to each other.

weather and navigation satellites shooting star another name for a meteor solar something having to do with the sun solar flare a storm or eruption of hot gases on the sun solar system the sun, and all the planets and other objects that orbit around it ~ streams of ...

~ Streams of plasma flowing approximately radially outward from the sun. solar year = tropical year. solenoid A tube formed in space by the intersection of unit-interval isotimic surfaces of two scalar quantities.

The corona is also the source of the ~s, steady streams of particles that are blown off from the Sun. These particles can on occasion interact with the Earth's atmosphere and produce the aurora, or northern lights.

Velocity of the Sun (19.4 km sin the direction lII = 51, bII = 23) with respect to the local standard of rest. [H76]
~ ...

Wind studies the ~ and its impact on the near-Earth environment. This mission is part of SMD's Heliophysics Research program.
19941101 November 01, 1994
3Operating ...

The boundary between the undisturbed ~ and the region being deflected around the planet or comet
Breccia
A rock composed of fragments of earlier rocks bonded together.
Brown Dwarf
A very cool, low luminosity star whose mass is not sufficient to ignite nuclear fusion.
Burster ...

Typical auroras occur 100 to 250 km above the ground as high speed particles from the ~ collide with atmospheric gasses at these altitudes. AURORAL OVAL An oval band situated between MAGNETIC LATITUDES of 64 and 70 degrees where the visible AURORA occurs overhead.

A feature of the ~ having velocities that are about double average ~ values. HOMOLOGOUS FLARES. Solar flares that occur repetitively in the same ACTIVE REGION, with essentially the same position and with a common pattern of development. HYDER FLARE.

1959 - Moon - Success - Luna 1 flyby launched, it discovered ~
1959 - Moon - Pioneer 4 flyby
1959 - Moon - Success - Luna 2 lander launched, it was the first spacecraft to impact onto he surface of the moon ...

The Earth's magnetosphere consists of a dipole field, similar to that of a bar magnet, and a long tail on the night side produced by the interaction of the ~ with the Earth's magnetic field. Megaton An explosive force equal to one million metric tons of TNT.

The boundary marking the edge of the sun's influence where the ~ and the wind from other stars meet is about 100 and 150 astronomical units from the sun. An astronomical unit (AU)is the distance between the Earth and Sun.

The corona is the seat of the ~ Prominences are threads of cool gas that lie in the corona and are supported by magnetic fields. (From Stars, J. B. Kaler, Scientific American Library, Freeman, NY, 1992.)
After 4.

NASA's venerable Pioneer 7, launched in 1966, was still going strong twenty years later when it observed the interaction between the tail of 1P/Halley and the ~.

This barely extant atmosphere includes trace amounts of hydrogen and helium from the ~. In 1991, very powerful radio telescopes noticed large sheets of ice contained on the poles, areas unseen by Mariner 10.

Many comets have two tails, a gas tail (also called the ion tail) composed of ions blown out of the comet away from the Sun by the ~, and a dust tail composed of dust particles liberated from the nucleus as the ices are vaporized.

This radiation was also embedded in strong ~s that carried magnetic storms outward from the Sun.

Throughout the star's lifetime it is losing mass via a stellar wind, like the ~. This mass loss increases when the star swells up to the size and low gravity of a Red Giant.

A phenomenon produced when the ~ (made up of energized electrons and protons) disturbs the atoms and molecules in a planet's upper atmosphere. Some of the energy produced by these disturbances is converted into colorful visible light, which shimmers and dances.

The ~s push the dust and gas away from the coma causing them to stream off into space to form the comet's tail. The ~s cause the comet's tail to point away from the Sun. The tails of comets can reach 150 million kilometers in length! ...

But the surface of the Moon is blasted with a stream of particles from the Sun- the ~- which act like a gentle abrasive which sputters sodium and potassium atoms off the lunar surface. A continuous bombardment of micrometeorites has the same effect.

These magnetic fields around the earth trap particles from the ~s and the theory is that passing through these regions would have given the astronauts deadly amounts of radiation poisoning.

As astronomer there, Antony Hewish, decided to study the rapid variations that would result because of the radio wave's passage through the stream of ionized gas given off by the sun known as the "~" (in particular the electrons in the ~ can affect radio waves).

The thought was that when the ~ from the Sun first began during the formation of our solar system, the light gases such as hydrogen and helium were blown away from the Sun, out towards the developing outer planets.

Short Description: Students use iron powder to model the ~. The student text introduces the idea of planetary diversity not only in the shape, size and strength of the planetary magnetospheres, but also in the types and sources of the high-energy charged particles that occupy them.

~ : aurora, comet tails pushed back
Solar activity, sunspots, magnetic fields, cooler
Sunspot cycle, magnetic field cycle, differential rotation
Prominences, flares, coronal mass ejections
Helioseismology : observations and internal structure
The sun's energy source ...

Heliopause
The point at which the ~ meets the interstellar medium or ~ from other stars.
Heliosphere
The space within the boundary of the heliopause containing the Sun and solar system.

Radiation pressure and ~ effects result in a comet's tail always pointing directly away from the Sun. NightSkyInfo.com Diagram [Larger Image]
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2. From where does Comet ISON come?

I remember a news flash earlier that day from SpaceWeather that one of NASA's spacecraft detected a sudden increase in particle density and speed of the ~. They said the effects would be passing Earth in about one hour and to keep your heads up for possible Aurora.

*Mercury has an iron core, and has a magnet field strong enough to repel the ~s. Its wrinkled surface features, known as Lobate Scarpes, are a result of the cooling and contraction of its core, with its many craters formed after numerous encounters with asteroids and comets.

Beautiful ribbons of light caused by the interaction of high-energy particles in the ~ and the Earth's magnetic field. These are common near Earth's poles, in both extreme northern latitudes (aurora borealis or Northern Lights) and extreme southern latitudes (aurora australis).

magnetosphere
the region of space in which a planet's magnetic field dominates that of the ~.
magnetotail
the portion of a planetary magnetosphere which is pushed in the direction of the ~.

As no radiant sunlight or ~ escaped from the sphere, starships were not able to detect it until they were almost on top of it. As a result, the USS Jenolan crashed onto it in 2294 after being pulled in by the sphere's immense gravity well while en route to the Norpin colony.

Heliosphere: Region of the sun's influence where its ~ dominates over those from other stars and the galaxy as a whole.
- I - ...

Magnetosphere: Region around a planet in which its magnetic field dominates the interplanetary field carried by the ~.
Main Sequence: The region of the H-R diagram running from upper left to lower right, which includes roughly 90 percent of all stars.

Previous post: Scientists Designing "Ion Shield" To Protect Astronauts From ~
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Sponsors ...

Comet
A body of the solar system, composed of ices and rocks. The frozen material evaporates as the comet approaches the sun and, driven away by the ~, forms the comet tail.
(More information can be found here.) ...

Since comets range in size from a small boulder to larger than a mountain, as they fall closer to the Sun, the loose bits of dust and ice that make up the comet begins to heat up and then gets blown back by the ~.

Diffuse streamers of gas and dust released from a comet and blown in the direction away from the Sun by the ~.
comparative planetology ...

The Mariner 10 mission required more course corrections than any previous mission and was the first spacecraft to use the gravitational pull of one planet to help it reach another planet. This craft was also the first to use the ~ as a means of locomotion; when the probe' ...

As a comet's nucleus is usually quite small, it is not able to retain its coma for long periods of time, and the coma material gradually drifts away into space (helped out by the ~). Much coma material is thrown back into what we see as the comet's tail.

The gas tail is created by the ~, whose magnetic fields pull the gas away from the comet's coma. The dust in the coma is not affected by magnetic fields but is vaporized by the Sun's heat, and forms a curved tail due to the comet's orbit.

The reason for this state of affairs, put simply, is that when the Solar System was born, most of the gases near the Sun were soon either vapourised or blown away by the ~ so that only heavy metal & rock materials were left to form the inner planets.

In May I will tell you about the aurora and that requires an understanding of some extra Sun physics, so it's at that point I will teach you about the Sun's magnetic field, sunspots, solar flares and the ~.

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Solar, Sun, Earth, Astro, Planet?

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