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Sunrise

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Sunrise is the instant at which the upper edge of the Sun appears above the horizon in the east. Sunrise should not be confused with dawn, which is the (variously defined) point at which the sky begins to lighten, some time before the sun itself appears, ending twilight.


Sunrise on the Bay of Rainbows
By Brian Ventrudo
A day or two after the Moon reaches first quarter, sunlight spreads over a striking region on the Moon known as Sinus Iridum, the 'Bay of Rainbows'.

Sunrise is the time at which the leading limb of the first rises above the . The effect of refraction in the Earth's atmosphere lifts the image of the about half a degree at the horizon, making sunrise about two minutes earlier than would be expected from the actual position of the in space.

Happy autumnal equinox: here's a year of sunrises
At 09:05 UTC (05:05 Eastern US time) this morning, the position of the center of the Sun's disk, moving south, crossed the celestial equator on the sky. For normal people, this means it was the moment of the autumnal equinox.

Sunrise, Sunset
Who hasn't enjoyed watching a sunset as the Sun's red disk sinks below the horizon. Why does the Sun now appear red?

~, Sunset: Apparent Motion of the Sun
Objectives:
Identify the Sun as the source of Earth's light.
Observe and describe changes in the Sun's altitude and position.
Recognize that day and night are determined by our view of the Sun.

~ at the South Pole
Today's autumnal equinox heralds the dawn of a new day at the South Pole as Earth joins three other planets in the solar system where it is autumn in the northern hemisphere.
Just Passing By Earth ...

~ -- For technical definition, please follow this link to the U.S. Naval Observatory Astronomical Applications website.
Sunset -- For technical definition, please follow this link to the U.S. Naval Observatory Astronomical Applications website.

~/Sunset
The times at which the apparent upper limb of the Sun is on the astronomical horizon; i.e.

12 : ~ or sunset, as seen from the surface of the Moon, appears to us here on Earth as the Moon's ...
maria.
rays.
Lunar Transient Phenomena (LTP).
terminator.

~ & Sunset Calendar
Another way of keeping track of the seasons is to watch the ~ and sunset points on the horizon. The Sun rises and sets at its southernmost point for the year on the day of the Southern solstice.

~
Noon
The phase diagram seems to show that a solar and lunar eclipse should happen every month but eclipses actually happen only twice a year. You can see why if you look at the Moon's orbit from close to edge-on.

Is ~ any faster in the tropics--or actually slower--or else, latitude really makes no difference? Explain.

During ~ and sunset, sunlight is attenuated due to Rayleigh scattering and Mie scattering from a particularly long passage through Earth's atmosphere and the direct Sun is sometimes faint enough to be viewed comfortably with the naked eye or safely with optics (provided there is no risk of ...

Rises at ~, transits meridian at noon, sets at sunset
A
Waxing Crescent ...

* Latest ~ of the year.
Click here to return to the calendar page.
*William G. Swan stayed aloft for 30 minutes over Atlantic City, N.J., in a glider powered with 10 small rockets (1931) ...

Sacagawea ~
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The time from one ~ to the next is called a solar day. The time between successive risings of any given star is one sidereal day. Because of Earth's revolution around the Sun, the solar day is a few minutes longer than the sidereal day.

The exact time of ~ and sunset (and similar data for moonrise and moonset) may be calculated for any date and 22,000 named cities in the United States, or by specifying the latitude and longitude of any location worldwide, using this program.

The site includes a ~ and sunset time calculator, visibility predictions for the new crescent Moon, maps of forthcoming eclipses and information on UK public holidays.

green flash (NASA SP-7, 1965) A brilliant green coloring of the upper edge of the sun as it appears at ~ or disappears at sunset when there is a clear, distinct horizon.

But first we need to define "~." The World Almanac defines it as the instant the upper limb of the Sun touches the horizon. By this definition we can't see a ~ until the Sun has risen after having been completely below the horizon.

The Babylonians and Hindoos began their day at ~, the Athenians and Jews at sunset, the ancient Egyptians and Romans at midnight. -- Day blindness. Med. See Nyctalopia. -- Day by day, or Day after day, daily; every day; continually; without intermission of a day. See under By.

This heliacal rising is the first time in the year when Sirius was seen in the sky just before ~. This rising of Sirius (known by the Egyptians as Sothis) signaled the beginning of festivals celebrating fertility and renewal.

nearly an hour before ~, Perseus will be due east. The Moon, nearly 40 degrees away, should present a minimal problem. Also, low towards the cast are the planets Venus and Mars huddled close together. Less than four degrees away from the Moon is the planet Saturn.

(Do we mean a 24 hour period or do we mean the time between ~ and sunset?) We usually do not have to define it with great quantitative precision to make use of it.

It started to move away just before ~ and once Sun cleared horizon, through a narrow gap between layers of clouds, I noticed Venus immediately as a black disk against deep red, deformed face of our Star! ...

It was three hours before the Martian ~ when it landed. The probe quickly deflated the air bags, then opened up like a flower - each "petal" being a solar panel to generate power. Four hours later, it broadcast a signal to Earth.

Sometimes, at ~ or sunset, there are flashes of green light visible near the sun. This effect only happens when there are no clouds nearb the sun.

This dust originates from comets and from asteroid collisions, and can sometimes be seen with the naked eye as a triangular glow above the horizon just before ~ or after sunset.

As it does so, it goes from being the 'Evening star', visible after sunset, to being the 'Morning star', visible before ~.

The interval of time preceding ~ and following sunset (see ~; unset) during which the sky is partially illuminated.

The use of 'East' to mean the 'in' direction (actually 'in' → 'East' → '~' → 'up') may appear unnecessarily contrived. Previously, as related in the first reference cited above, Faraday had used the more straightforward term "eisode" (the doorway where the charge enters).

*Venus can be viewed with the naked eye in the east up to 3 hours before ~, and in the west up to 3 hours before sunset.

It was taken one hour before ~ on the rover's 63rd martian day, or "sol." The final image is a mosaic of the navigation camera showing a broad view of the sky and the panoramic camera image of Earth.

On Mercury, which is longer, one solar day (~ to ~ on Mercury) or one year (one revolution around the Sun)?
Day Year 8. Does it ever get cold on Mercury?
Yes No 9. On Mercury, would you feel lighter or heavier than on Earth?
Lighter Heavier 10.

Some are only seen near the Sun, either around the time of ~ or sunset (Mercury and Venus are the two that do this - in the animation, the Sun is the yellow dot, Mercury is the red dot, and Venus is the bluish dot. The stars have been removed to show the motion clearly).

Naked eye map - Comet ISON location in early August - 30 minutes before ~, looking east-northeast.
Naked eye map - Comet ISON location in mid-August - 30 minutes before ~, looking east-northeast.
Naked eye map - Comet ISON location in late August - 30 minutes before ~, looking east.

For example, more than 400,000 people gathered for the ~ Event on New Year's Day in Busan City, South Korea. In Brazil, the 2009 Brazilian Olympiad of Astronomy and Astronautics saw more than 750,000 students participate from 32,500 schools.

Cards are convenient at the telescope, easy to stuff in the pocket of your shirt or coat, and easy of light on the ~ or sunset limb of Mars.

Early in the 20th century, the English astronomer Sir Norman Lockyer demonstrated that the northeast axis aligned with the ~ at the summer solstice, leading other scholars to speculate that the builders were sun worshipers.

Terminator: The line between night and day, where ~ or sunset is occurring.
Terrestrial Planets: A rocky planet with a relatively thin atmosphere. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are the four terrestrial planets in our solar system.

At many locations, surface turbulence follows a diurnal cycle from a minimum just after ~, steeply rising to a peak during early afternoon, declining to a secondary minimum shortly after sunset, and increasing slightly during the early evening before returning to minimum in the morning.

Sunlight creates sunsets and ~s that range from quiet and peaceful to colorfully spectacular. It is observed in the blue sky, in rainbows and colored rings, and in peaceful twilights. Sunlight is seen at night reflected from the Moon and planets, which leads us inexorably back to the stars.

A partial transit can be seen in progress at ~ throughout Europe, western Asia, and eastern Africa. A partial transit can be seen in progress at sunset throughout most of North America, Central America, and western South America. The next transit will not take place until the year 2117.

Here on earth we know it's time for breakfast when the sun comes up, but what does that mean on the International Space Station where astronauts get to see a ~ every hour and a half? We either have to find solution to this problem. or ship up a bunch of milk and cereal! ...

Solstice Literally "sun still". It refers to the apparent standstill of ~ and sunset points at midsummer and midwinter. (i) The most southerly and northerly declinations of the Sun. (ii) The date on which the Sun attains its greatest declination.

Although Mercury is not tidally locked to the Sun, its rotational period of almost 59 days is tidally coupled to its orbital period of 88 days, rotating only one and a half times during each orbit in a 3:2 resonance. Hence, a "day" on Mercury (~ to ~) is 176 Earth days long.

The zenith skyglow at ~ or sunset.
The Distribution of Glow Across the Sky ...

morning star: Any planet visible in the sky just before ~.
multiringed basin: Very large impact basins in which there are concentric rings of mountains.
mutant: Offspring born with altered DNA.

Like Mercury, Venus is close to the Sun and so we can only see it before ~ or after sunset. However, it can appear further above the horizon than Mercury.

Many comets are first discovered by amateur astronomers. Since comets are brightest when near the Sun, they are usually visible only at ~ or sunset. Charts showing the positions in the sky of some comets can be created with a planetarium program.
More about comets ...

twilight: the time after sunset or before ~ when the sky is not fully dark.

A planet visible in the Morning shortly before ~ is a morning star, a planet visible just before sunset is the Evening Star.
N
Nanometer ...

full moon
The phase of the Moon in which it is fully illuminated and rises at sunset and sets at ~.
fusion crust
The melted exterior of a meteorite caused by the intense heat of entering the Earth's atmosphere.

The name Sirius comes from the Greek Σείριος (Seirios), which means "scorching," "glowing" or "searing." In ancient times, the star rose just before ~ during the hottest summer period, the so-called Dog Days.

heel stone -- the large upright boulder (or menhir) at Stonehenge that is aligned with the summer solstice ~.
latitude -- distance on the Earth (measured in degrees) north or south of the equator.

A diffuse band of light visible along the ecliptic near ~ and sunset, created by sunlight scattered off of interplanetary dust.

To an observer situated on the planet's hot pole at aphelion during a ~, the Sun would approach the zenith (getting larger as it does so), but since the orbital angular velocity is greater than the constant-spin angular velocity for a time, the Sun appears to stop, ...

Zodiacal Light
a faint cone of light that can sometimes be seen above the horizon after sunset or before ~. Zodiacal light is caused by sunlight reflecting off small particles of material in the plane of the Solar System.

Full Moon
The Moon when it lies directly opposite the Sun. The Moon is full two weeks after new Moon. The full Moon rises at sunset and sets at ~. Earth is between the full Moon and the Sun.

Hoisting the youth on his shoulders, Orion headed east towards the ~, which an oracle had told him would restore his sight. As the sun's healing rays fell on his sightless eyes at dawn, Orion's vision was miraculously restored.

Mercury and Venus are particularly easy to see when at greatest elongation. When the planet is at maximum EASTERN elongation the planet is seen in the evening close to sunset. When the planet is at maximum WESTERN elongation, the planet is seen in the morning close to ~ (see diagram 2).

As the moon wanes (becoming a half moon and a crescent moon, on the way to a new moon), the moon rises during the night, after sunset, rising later each night. It then sets in the daytime, after the sun rises. Eventually, the moon rises so late at night that it's actually rising around ~, ...

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Astro, Earth, Sun, Sky, Planet?

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