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VOR approaches
Minor revision 8/09/06
VOR approaches are the mainstay of the Instrument system. They differ from a VOR/DME approach in that there is no distance information available to the pilot. The approach must be timed by the pilot so that he knows where he is.

VOR applications
Like the NDB / ADF there are several applications for the VOR in light aircraft cross country VMC navigation. The applications briefly described below will be detailed in the 'Using the VOR' module.

VOR Radio Navigation
VOR stands for Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range. It is a radio transmitter capable of sending signals resembling the spokes of a bike wheel.

VOR Cone-of-confusion indications:
(1) Size of a VOR cone is negligible, meaning that station passage can be used as a recognizable fix
(2) HSI VOR bearing pointer will be removed when within the cone ...

VOR test facility (VOT). A ground facility which emits a test signal to check VOR receiver accuracy. Some VOTs are available to the user while airborne, while others are limited to ground use only.
VOT. See VOR test facility.
VSI. See vertical speed indicator.

The VHF omnidirectional range (~) navigation system has been in widespread use in the United States since the 1950s. However, it is being replaced by GPS.

~ (VHF Omnidirectional Range) A land-based radio navigational system. A ~ station transmits a signal that the receiver can use to calculate its postion relative to or from the station. The pilot may use the CDI to select a course to or from the station and then maintain that course.

~: VHF Omni-Range. A radio transmitter used for navigation. A companion receiver in the airplane provides an indicator that shows the direction from the station to the airplane.

A ground based navigation aid that transmits very high frequency signals, 360 degrees in azimuth, oriented with respect to magnetic north.

A ground-based electronic navigation aid transmitting very high frequency navigation signals, 360 degrees in azimuth, oriented from magnetic north. Used as the basis for navigation in the National Airspace System.

~ (VHF Omnidirectional Range) Ground- based radio navigation aid. More than 1,000 VORs electronically define Victor Airways and Jet Airways, 'highways in the sky.' Most IFR and many VFR flights follow airway routes.

VHF Omnidirectional Range/Distance Measuring Equipment
~TAC ...

~ - VHF OmniRange. A ground-based navigation aid transmitting very high frequency (VHF) navigation signals 360 in azimuth, on radials oriented from magnetic north. The ~ periodically identifies itself by Morse Code and may have an additional voice identification feature.

~, ILS, NDB, VASI, DME, MLS, are different navigation aids and need periodic flight inspection.

~: Radio nav aid, named after the ~tex effect of pilots trying to home in on it.
Windsocks: Socks that need darning.
Yankee: Any pilot that asks Houston tower to "Say again." ...

Omni Range, a ground based navigation aid
IATA International Air Transport Association ...

Very High Frequency Omni Directional Range. A ground-based electronic navigation aid transmitting very high frequency navigation signals, 360 degrees in azimuth, oriented from magnetic north. Used as the basis for navigation in the National Airspace System.

4. ~ check-If your airplane is IFR equipped within the preceding 30 days the ~ equipment must be operationally check in accordance with FAR 91.171. Remember you should also maintain a record in the airplane of this. I have always used a small spiral notepad.

(See ~.)
TERRAIN FOLLOWING- The flight of a military aircraft maintaining a constant AGL altitude above the terrain or the highest obstruction. The altitude of the aircraft will constantly change with the varying terrain and/or obstruction.

A plain old ~ receiver can get you into trouble, too. It is altogether too common for pilots approaching a ~ to have their heads “down and locked” — paying vastly too much attention to the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) needle and not enough attention to other traffic.

~: Very high frequency Omnidirectional Range. A radio navigation aid operating in the 108-118 MHz band. A ~ ground station transmits a two-phase directional signal through 360. the aircraft's ~ receiver enables a pilot to identify his radial or bearing from/to the ground station.

This tracking a ~ radial to a station is the primary means by which pilots the world over navigate from one section of a country to another, and finally to any destination airport.

In this particular aircraft a ~ display is mounted to the left of the Turn and Bank, below the directional gyro.
Engine Instrument Cluster
Other instruments are mounted to the left of the flight instruments. These include engine instruments, and instruments related to the rotor system.

T1MUX T1 Multiplexer TAAS Terminal Advance Automation System TAC Tactical Air Command (USAF) Tester TAC Terminal Area Chart TACAN Tactical Air Navigation TACAN Tactical Aircraft Control and Navigation TACR TACAN at ~, ...

Your retrospective on the ~ ("The Day The Waypoints Died," April 2012) was of interest in a reverse sort of way. I'm one of a few horse-and-buggy types who navigate by map-reading and compass alone, using VORs occasionally as a backup to map reading as opposed to a backup for GPS.

Navigation relative to radio station, providing, for example, of relative bearing, range, lateral deviation, and glideslope; Examples include ~, TACAN, and PLS. Radio navigation differs from other navigation in that the transmitter signals often dropout for a long period of time, like minutes.

A NAVAID can be a ~ (very high frequency omni-directional range beacon), NDB (non-directional beacon), or GPS waypoint. In order to be abeam a NAVAID you have to have instrument confirmation that you next to it. In a ~ this is commonly shown by the shaking of the CDI needle.

Of course, someone is going to say, “Yeah, but we can always tune in a ~.' That is definitely not true and is one of the problems with being forced low: the lower you get, the shorter the ~ range becomes until that mode of navigation becomes totally useless.

VERY HIGH FREQUENCY (VHF) OMNIDIRECTIONAL RANGE (~) - A radio transmitter facility in the navigation system radiating a VHF radio wave modulated by two signals, the relative phases of which are compared, resolved, ...

Very High Frequency Omni-directional Range (~): A ground-based navigation aid which transmits very high frequency navigation signals in 360 degrees.

The actual equipment allows a pilot to determine the magnetic direction the airplane lies from a given ~. This is a really useful thing to know and VORs have been a primary way of instrument navigation as well as being very helpful in VFR conditions.

Radial - Magnetic bearing extending from a ~
RADAR - Radio Detection and Ranging
RCO - Remote Communications Outlet
Roger - Communications acknowledgement
RNAV - Area Navigation
RTB - Return to Base
RVR - Runway Visual Range
RVSM - Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum ...

Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range (~) Station − A ground-based radio navigation aid transmitting signals in all directions. A ~ provides azimuth guidance to pilots by reception of electronic signals.

A device or process to help with navigation, such as a ~ station or a position update;
A point, usually fixed in earth coordinates but possibly moving; Also, a basic guidance mode, providing lateral guidance to an NRP, either by course o...

HSI (Horizontal Situation Indicator): Instrument on the pilot's flight instrument panel capable of displaying position information in ILS, ~ or NAV modes.

A magnetic bearing from a ~, TACAN, or ~TAC facility, except for facilities in the Northern Domestic Airspace which may be oriented on True or Grid North.

Tacan Tactical air navigation, UHF navaid giving bearing and distance to ground beacons; distance element (see DME) can be paired with civil ~.
taileron Left and right tailplanes used as primary control surfaces in both pitch and roll.

Comosite video - Analog ~ receiver output before processing.
CONT - Teledyne-Continental (engine mfgr.)
Contact digitizer - A mechanical device that converts analog information to digital codes by means of electrical contacts.

Rescue SEP Single Engine Piston SRA Surveillance Radar Approach SSCPE StormSCoPE SSR Secondary Surveillance Radar TAR Terminal Area Radar TCAS Traffic alert & Collision Avoidance System TL Transition Level TWR ToWeR TWY Taxi WaY VFR Visual Flight Rules VMC Visual Meteorological Conditions ~ ...

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Aircraft, Pilot, Flight, Navigation, Landing?

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