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If the expression level of each pair of autosomes (gray for both males and females) is set to 1.0, then the expression level of the two X chromosomes in females (pink) and the single X chromosome in males (blue) is also equal to 1.0.

Autosomes. All chromosomes other than the sex (X and Y) chromosomes.
Axenic. Not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms (excepting endogenous retroviruses). A.k.a. germfree.
BAC. Bacterial artificial chromosome. A vector for cloning large segments of genome.

Chromosomes that do not differ between sexes.
A measure of the expected homozygosity where alleles are identical by descent.

autosomes the 22 pairs of human chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes.
autotrophic certain bacteria that synthesize their own foods.
axon the long extension of a neuron.

Autosomes all the chromosomes other than the X and Y chromosomes
(auto = self; soma = body)
Autotroph an organism‚ such as a plant‚ which makes its own food
(auto = self; troph = food‚ nourish‚ nourishment) ...

~ The chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes. Each member of an autosome pair (in diploid organisms) is of similar length and in the genes it carries.
autotrophic Refers to organisms that synthesize their nutrients and obtain their energy from inorganic raw materials.

22 pairs of ~
1 pair of X chromosomes
The karyotype of the human male contains:
the same 22 pairs of ~
one X chromosome
one Y chromosome ...

Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 ~ and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.

The human genome has 44 ~ (22 pairs) (figure 1).
Autosomal — A gene is autosomal if it is located on an autosome. A gene's inheritance pattern is also referred to as autosomal if the pattern corresponds to that of known autosomal genes.

Genome -- all of the genes carried by a single gamete; the DNA content of an individual, which includes all 44 ~, 2 sex chromosomes, and the mitochondrial DNA. Genotype -- genetic constitution of an organism. Germ cell -- a sex cell or gamete (egg or spermatozoan).

6%, 69/10,694 in total, 63/10,422 on ~) than in intergenic and intragenic regions, especially for CGIs covering exons (34%, 505/1,471 in total, 502/1,449 on ~) (Figure 2A).

Of these, 22 are ~ and 1 is a sex chromosome.
Clones A group of cells derived from a single ancestor.
Cloning The process of asexually producing a group of cells (clones), all genetically identical, from a single ancestor.

Most genes are carried on ~, the twenty-two pairs of chromosomes that do not determine sex. Males and females are equally likely to inherit disease genes on ~ and develop the related diseases, called autosomal disorders.

In 1959 Susumu Ohno showed that the two X-chromosomes of mammals were different: one appeared like the ~; the other was condensed and heterochromatic (Ohno S, Kaplan WD, Kinosita R: Formation of the sex chromatin by a single X-chromosome in liver cells of rattus norvegicus.

We actually have a total of 23 pairs of chromosomes in these cells, for a total of 46 chromosomes, but two of those are referred to by letter rather than by number and are called sex chromosomes rather than ~, since they--that is the X and Y chromosome--help determine what sex, or gender, ...

Unlike the twenty-two pairs of ~, there is no recombination between the X and most of the Y chromosome. Genes on the part of the Y chromosome that does not recombine will be passed from father to son, down a paternal lineage, and will never be present in females.

Mothers give 22 ~ (1-22) and an X chromosome. Fathers give us 22 ~ and either and X or a Y chromosome. The father determines the sex of his offspring. If the sperm contains an X chromosome, the baby will be a girl. If the sperm contains a Y chromosome, the baby will be a boy.

The diploid human genome consists of 46 chromosomes, 22 pairs of ~, and one pair of sex chromosomes (the X and Y chromosomes).
Related Terms:
The term was proposed by Waldeyer (1888) for the individual threads within a cell nucleus (gk. chroma, colour; soma, body).

Now that's a significant difference from the standard way of doing genetics which is talking about the autosome or chromosomes because unlike the ~, the other non-sex chromosomes, males only get one of those x chromosomes.

Sperm cells or ova (gametes) have only one set of chromosomes-22 ~ and an X (in an ovum) and 22 ~ and an X or a Y (in a sperm cell).
A gamete with a single chromosome set is haploid, abbreviated as n.

Domestic cattle with 58 acrocentric ~, X and Y (2n=60) are thought to ... Many have considered the acrocentric X chromosome with satellite I DNA as the ...
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Formed to save Vechur, the smallest cow in the world, from the brink of extinction.
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Diploid set for humans; 2n = 46
~; homologous chromosomes, one from each parent (humans = 22 sets of 2)
Sex chromosomes (humans have 1 set of 2)
Female-sex chromosomes are homologous (XX)
Male-sex chromosomes are non-homologous (XY) ...

The human haploid cell is the gamete (egg cell and sperm cell). The human gamete has 22 ~ and 1 allosome, i.e., 23 chromosomes. The diploid cell is the somatic cell and it has 44 ~ and 2 allosomes, i.e., 46 chromosomes.

10.2.2 Distinguish between ~ and sex chromosomes.
Sex chromosomes are the ones that determine your gender. These are X and Y (XX in females, XY in males).

A human cell contains 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes: 22 of them are homologous non-sex chromosomes (or ~) and 1 homologous pair of sex chromosomes. In females, the homologous sex chromosomes are 2 X's; in males the X and Y chromosomes.
Compare: sister chromatids.

A chromosome not involved in sex determination. The diploid human genome consists of a total of 46 chromosomes: 22 pairs of ~, and 1 pair of sex chromosomes (the X and Y chromosomes).
See also: sex chromosome
Avuncular relationship ...

A term coined by Montgomery (1906) for the chromosome not involved in sex determination; a chromosome other than a sex chromosome. The diploid human genome consists of 46 chromosomes, 22 pairs of ~, and one pair of sex chromosomes (the X and Y chromosomes).

A test that determines whether a locus is on a specific human chromosome by observation of the concordance of the locus and the specific chromosome in a panel of human-mouse hybrid cell lines containing only one or a few of the normal set (22 ~, X and Y) of human chromosomes.

that lacks sex chromosomes: a set of chromosomes that includes one and only one of each of the different types of chromosomes characteristic of that organism; (2) in an organism having sex chromosomes: a set of chromosomes that includes one and only one of each of the different types of ~ ...

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Autosome, Chromosome, Chromosomes, Human, Sex?

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