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Cholesterol

Biology  Chloroplasts  Chordata

Cholesterol is a lipid found in the cell membranes of all tissues, and it is transported in the blood plasma of all animals. Cholesterol is also considered a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol).


Cholesterol
Cholesterol is small molecule, one of the steroids. It is essential to life. It has also been responsible for 17 Nobel Prizes, countless pages of reports in scientific journals and the popular press, and mounting anxiety on the part of health-conscious people. Why?

cholesterol
An amphipathic lipid containing the four-ring steroid structure with a hydroxyl group on one ring; a major component of many eukaryotic membranes and precursor of steroid hormones. (Figure 5-29) ...

Cholesterol (high)
Cholesterol is a type of fat found in all animals. It is an essential part of cell membranes, and is used in the body to make bile, steroid hormones, and fat-soluble vitamins including Vitamin A, D, E and K. It plays an essential part in most body processes.

The Cholesterol and Pharmacogenetics (CAP) trial involved 944 healthy volunteers (609 self-identified Caucasians) selected on the basis of plasma cholesterol levels between 160 and 400 mg/dL who were treated with 40 mg/day simvastatin for 6 weeks.

~ and steroids: Most mention of these two types of lipids in the news is usually negative. ~, illustrated in Figure 17, has many biological uses, it occurs in cell membranes, and its forms the sheath of some types of nerve cells.

~
(kol-ess-teh-rol)
A steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids.
Chondrichthyes ...

~ /kə-LEST-ə-rawl/ The most important sterol in animals. It is a product of the liver and is essential to the functionality of the lipid bilayers of animal cell membranes.
chondrin /CAWN-drin, -drən/ A gelatinous protein-carbohydrate complex present in cartilage.

Hampton RY: ~ homeostasis: ESCAPe from the ER.
Davies JP, Chen FW, Ioannou YA: Transmembrane molecular pump activity of Niemann-Pick C1 protein. ...

~
The Biology Project > Cell Biology > Cell Membranes > Problem Set
The Biology Project
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics
University of Arizona
May 2002
Revised: August 2004
Contact the Development Team ...

~ is also present in the membrane. It maintains the fluidity and increases the stability of the membrane. Without ~ the membrane would easily split apart.
Functions of a membrane it's:
Selectively permeable barrier.

~
What are these molecules, and how do they affect health?
Common Risk-Associated Diseases ...

~ - a steroid
Can comprise up to 50% of animal plasma membrane
Hydrophilic OH groups toward surface
Smaller than a phospholipid and less amphipathic (having both polar and non-polar regions of the molecule) ...

~ synthesis
Lipogenesis, the production of triglycerides (fats).
A bulk of the lipoproteins are synthesized in the liver.

~ - lipid molecule with a characteristic four-ringed steroid structure that is an important component of the plasma membranes of animal cells
chromatography - technique generaly most useful for protein fractionation and developed to separate small molecules such as sugars and amino acids.

~ Steroid that is an integral part of cell membranes and a precursor to other steroidal compounds in animals.
cholinergic Type of nerve fiber that releases acetylcholine from axon terminal.

While ~ is an essential molecule in animals, high levels of ~ in the blood may contribute to cardiovascular disease.
Both saturated fats and trans fats exert their negative impact on health by affecting ~ levels.

Bile salts, ~, the sexual hormones estrogen, progesterone and testosterone, the corticosteroids and the pro-vitamin D are examples of steroids.
Lipids and Fat Review - Image Diversity: steroid structure ...

In contrast, ~ has a complex carbon-based ring structure, and a single hydrophilic -OH group â†'.
Molecules with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups are termed amphipathic.

9. Which of the following are found in the cell membrane?
a. cellulose
b. phospholipids
c. ~
d. proteins ...

>"bad" ~) and decreases HDL ("good" ~) thus
>increasing the risk of heart attack, still the # 1 cause of death in the
>U.S.
> The text also mentioned the protective effect in females of having
>a second copy of the X chromosome, which can compensate for a mutation ...

James Dewey Watson, Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins for discovering the molecular structure of DNA 1963 Sir John Carew Eccles, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, Andrew Fielding Huxley for describing the electric transmission of impulses along nerves 1964 Konrad Bloch, Feodor Lynen for research on ~ and ...

Objective: It is a main pathway for maintaining the balanceof ~ metabolism to converse ~ to bile acids inliver. There are two major bile acid biosynthetic pathway in liver:classic(or neutral) and alternative(or acidic) pathway.

MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of ~-lowering with simvastatin in 5963 people with diabetes: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2003;361(9374):2005-16. PMID 12814710.

~ (← links)
Diabetes insipidus (← links)
Adulterant (← links)
Pickle (← links)
Ilosvay reagent (← links)
Persulphocyanogen (← links)
Myosin (← links)
Hungary (← links)
Wormleys test (← links)
Papyrine (← links)
Gallegos differentiating solution (← links) ...

A balanced diet should be low in ~, sugar, salt, alcohol and saturated and trans fat
Balanced diet is also known as healthy diet, as it includes fresh fruits and vegetables.
Your balanced diet must be planned at your own calorie level, and portion size is key.

Examples of steroids include ~, estrogen, and testosterone. ~ in found in the cell membrane of animals, where it provides structural support. ~ is also the precursor for other steroids, such as testosterone and estrogen.

Cell membranes also contain ~ in the phospholipid bilayer. In some membranes there are only a few ~ molecules, but in others there are as many ~s as phospholipids according to Audesirk & Audesirk.

Steroid molecules and if you ever see a name of a molecule and it has the syllable ster in it like ~ estrogen, testosterone, aldosterone you'll you got a good chance of guessing that is a steroid because this group of four interlocking rings of carbon is called the steroid core.

~ molecules are found in animal membranes to help add support to its structure. The majority of the phospholipids contain unsaturated fatty acids to keep it fluid. Looking at the over all picture of the membrane the term fluid mosaic should become evident.

The cell membranes found in animal cells contain a chemical called ~. This chemical makes the membrane harder. Plant cells do not need ~, because they have a cell wall, as a result, their cell membranes are softer.

- Primary alcohols found in plant matter which play a role in the reduction of ~ and in stimulating apoptosis. Monoterpenes also increase the levels of liver enzymes involved in detoxifying carcinogens. This in turn appears to have anti-tumour and anticarcinogenic effects.

an organic compound containing four fused carbon rings, for example, ~, sex hormones, vitamin D, and adrenocortical hormone (ACTH)
Source: Noland, George B. 1983. General Biology, 11th Edition. St. Louis, MO. C. V. Mosby
...

Myelin a mixture of phospholipids and ~ which forms a sheath around many nerve cells
Myofibrils the microscopic fibres that make up the larger fibres of skeletal muscle
Myoglobin an iron-containing protein found in muscle ...

A class of lipids composed of four carbon rings, for example ~. For synthetic versions just ask Lance Armstrong.
VIEW SET
Testimonials ...

ATP in liver is used for active transport / phagocytosis / synthesise of glucose, protein, DNA, RNA, lipid, ~ / urea in glycolysis / bile production / cell division
Brown fat ...

They also play a part in the way organisms digest alcohol (ethanol). Because they do that job, you would expect liver cells to have more peroxisomes than most other cells in a human body. They also play a role in ~ synthesis and the digestion of amino acids.

And there are different types of plasma membranes in different types of cells, and the plasma membrane has in it in general a lot of ~ as its lipid component. That's different from certain other membranes from within the cell.

Cells are able to regulate the fluidity of their plasma membranes to meet their particular needs by synthesizing more of certain types of molecules, such as those with specific kinds of bonds that keep them fluid at lower temperatures. The presence of ~ and glycolipids, ...

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Cells, Trans, Protein, Blood, Human?

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