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Chromatid

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chromatid
One copy of a duplicated chromosome, formed during the S phase of the cell cycle, that is still joined at the centromere to the other copy; also called sister chromatid. During mitosis, the two chromatids separate, each becoming a chromosome of one of the two daughter cells.


chromatid
one of the two daughter strands of a replicated chromosome, joined by the centromere to the other daughter chromatid
Source: Jenkins, John B. 1990. Human Genetics, 2nd Edition. New York: Harper & Row ...

Chromatid
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Chromatid
One of the two identical parts of the condensed chromosome during mitosis.
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One of the two side by side replicas produced by chromosome replication in mitosis or meiosis. Subunit of a chromosome after replication and prior to anaphase of meiosis II or mitosis. At anaphase of meiosis II or mitosis when the centromeres divide and the sister chromatids separate each chromatid ...

~
A ~ is one of two identical halves of a replicated chromosome. During cell division, the chromosomes first replicate so that each daughter cell receives a complete set of chromosomes.

~
One of the strands of a duplicated chromosome joined by a single centromere, only seen during cell division.
View : Dr Chromo's lecture on Meiosis
View : Dr Chromo's lecture on chromosomes Pronounce:
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~ - One of the two identical halves of a duplicated chromosome, the two ~s that make up a chromosome are referred to as sister ~s.
Chromatin - The complex of DNA, proteins and some RNA that makes up eukaryotic chromosomes.

~. Either of the longitudinal subunits produced by chromosomal replication.
Chromatin. The aggregate DNA and histone proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome.

~
One of a pair of duplicated chromosomes produced during the S phase of the cell cycle, which are joined together at the centromere.
Covered in BIOL1020 Lab 6 Mitosis & Meiosis ...

~
One of the two identical strands of a newly replicated chromosome.
Chromogenic substrate
A substrate that changes color when modified by a specific enzyme.

~ Generally refers to a strand of a replicated chromosome; consists of DNA and protein. PICTURE
chromatin A complex of DNA and protein in eukaryotic cells that is dispersed throughout the nucleus during interphase and condensed into chromosomes during meiosis and mitosis. PICTURE ...

~ homologous chromosomes joined to each other at the centromere; present during the prophase of mitosis.
chromatin compacted DNA and protein.
chromosomes linear units of DNA.

~
(crow-ma-tid) [Gk. chroma, color]
Either of the two strands of a replicated chromosome, which are joined at the centromere.
chromatin ...

~ /KROME-ə-təd/ One of the two identical nucleoprotein strands of a single replicated chromosome, which are joined at the centromere. MORE INFORMATION ...

~: One of two copies of a replicated chromosome during mitosis. Together they are called sister ~s. Each one becomes a daughter chromosome at anaphase of mitosis and at the second meiotic division.

sister ~ (available in G2 after chromosome duplication), or on the
homologous chromosome (in G1; that is, before each chromosome has been duplicated).

Sister ~ - Refers to the copy of a chromosomes that results from DNA replication and is still closely linked to its original.
Somatic cell - Any plant or animal cell that is not a germ cell. The class of cell formed during mitosis.
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What is ~?
Study Cell Nucleus - Definition, Structure and Function .
What is air pollution?
Read Environmental Issues .

~
The term which McClung (1900) proposed for each of the four threads making up a chromosome-pair at meiosis (Gk. chroma, colour; for the derivation of '-id', see diploid).

~
Each of a pair of identical DNA molecules after DNA replication, joined at the centromere.
...

~ at the pole
Sets of chromosomes form new nuclei
Chromosomes become long and thin, uncoil!
Nuclear envelopes form around the nucleus ...

~ one of the two identical strands of genetic material that make up a chromosome.
Chromatography a technique used to separate the individual components of a mixture.
Chromosome a thread-like structure, composed of DNA and protein, found in the nucleus of plant and animal cells.

~ A replicated chromosome joined to its sister ~ by the centromere; separates and becomes daughter chromosome at anaphase of mitosis or anaphase of the second meiotic division.

The ~s are initially attached by adhesive proteins along their lengths.
As the chromosomes condense, the region where the ~s connect shrinks to a narrow area, the centromere.

sister ~s - the copies of each chromosome which are paired at the centromere during Meiosis and Mitosis
synaptonemal complex - a structure which forms between homologous chromosomes during Prophase I of Meiosis ...

Condensed ~ pairs are held together at the metaphase plate by balanced bipolar forces exerted on the chromosomes by kinetochore microtubules in the mitotic spindle.

Label two ~s with each letter. This way they can line up the pairs of homologous chromosomes during metaphase I and demonstrate all of the phases of meiosis. This leads right into a lesson on dihybrid crosses and probability.
Contributed by Shannon Tice
Questions? Comments??
Shannon Tice ...

The pairs of ~s line themselves up on the equator as in mitosis, with sister ~s orientated toward opposite poles.
Anaphase II
The centromeres divide and the ~s separate, migrating to opposite poles.

Anaphase II: ~S separate and begin moving to the poles.
Telophase II: CLEAVAGE FURROW forms beginning CYTOKINESIS.

~ The two identical halves of a chromosome produced for cell division and meiosis.
Chromosome Structures found in the nucleus of cells composed of DNA and proteins. Normally humans have 46 chromosomes in each cell, 23 from each parent.

During S phase, every chromosome replicates to yield two identical sister chromosomes (called ~s ) that remain attached at their kinetochores. G 2 , a period of apparent chromosomal inactivity, follows S phase. In G 2 , cells prepare for the dynamic chromosomal movements of mitosis.

The centromeres break and sister ~s separate
Cytokinesis begins
Compare Anaphase II to Anaphase I and to the Anaphase stage of mitosis.
Telophase II ...

Bhat MA, Philp AV, Glover DM, Bellen HJ: ~ segregation at anaphase requires the barren product, a novel chromosome-associated protein that interacts with Topoisomerase II.
Langmead B: Aligning short sequencing reads with Bowtie.
Unit 11.17 ...

~. Each of the two daughter strands of a duplicated chromosome joined at the centromere during mitosis and meiosis. Chromosome. A single DNA molecule, a tightly coiled strant of DNA, condensed into a compact structure in vivo by complexing with accessory histones or histone-like proteins.

~ — One of two replications of a chromosome formed prior to cell division and joined together at their centromeres. The centromere is the last portion of a chromosome to replicate during cell division. Sister ~s are a pair of ~s attached at the centromere.

Fragile sites -- a non-staining gap of variable width that usually involves both ~s and is always at exactly the same point on a specific chromosome derived from an individual or kindred.

After the DNA is replicated in the S phase preceding meiosis, the homologous chromosomes (each composed of two ~s) pair up in Prophase I and then crossing over, breakage and reunion occurs between the two homologs thereby ensuring recombination of genes between the two homologs.

In female meiosis the two chromosomes first duplicate to make four ~s, but then three ~s are effectively thrown away (as 'polar bodies' in mammals, or non-functional 'megaspores' in plants), while lucky number four becomes packaged ready for use in sexual reproduction.

It is customary in genetics to use strand for ~. It has therefore been used in that sense in some books, where it has also been used for one double-chain (that is, duplex) DNA molecule. Chain, but not strand, has been used for a single polynucleotide.
Related Terms:
~ ...

In prophase, the nuclear envelope begins to break down, the nuclear material (or chromatin) condenses into rod-shaped chromosomes consisting of two sister ~s, and the mitotic spindle begins to assemble.

At metaphase the ~s move to the equator. The sister ~s are two DNA molecules formed by DNA replication and are therefore identical.

Just like this is a visible chromosome but it's only made out of one molecule, we don't bother calling it a ~ at that point because ~ means a sub part of the chromosome.

Anaphase is preceded by metaphase, by the end of which fully condensed sister ~s are arranged in pairs, their centromeres lying along a surface known as the metaphase plate. Spindle fibres (microtubules containing γ-tubulin) extend from the spindle poles to the centromeres .

Prophase - Homologous chromosomes in the nucleus begin to pair up with one another and then split into ~s (one half of a chromosome) where crossing over can occur. Crossing offer can increase genetic variation.

The replicated chromosomes (sometimes known as ~s), remain attached to one another at a region known as the centromere.
During mitosis, the attachment between ~s is broken and one ~ is segregated to each daughter nuclei.

Anaphase the third stage of mitosis or meiosis in which the sister ~s or chromosomes separate and move to the poles of the cell
(ana = up‚ throughout‚ again)
Anatomy the study of body parts‚ their names‚ and locations
(ana = up‚ throughout‚ again; tom = to cut) ...

acrocentric
Chromosomes and ~s with a centromere near one end.
addition rule
See sum rule.

centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the ~s are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division. MeSH, 1991 ...

Recombination: Exchange of gene segments by crossing over at chiasmata (exchange of material between non-sister ~s). The exchanged sections are usually homologous. The likelihood of recombination increases with increasing physical distance.

centromere [Gr. kentron - point, spine, center of a circle; Gr. meros - a part]. The region of a chromosome where two ~s are joined and where spindle fibers attach during mitosis and meiosis.

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Chromosome, Chromosomes, Cell, Cells, DNA?

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