Complement

Biology  Competitive inhibitor  Complementary DNA

complementary
Referring to two nucleic acid sequences or strands that can form a perfect base-paired double helix with each other; also describing regions on two interacting molecules (e.g., an enzyme and its substrate) that fit together in a lock-and-key fashion.


Complementary
Supplying a defect or helping to do so, making complete, accessory.
Origin: L. Complere = to fill ...

complementary DNA (cDNA)
cDNA is DNA copied from message RNA (mRNA).
Related ...

complementary DNA (cDNA) Synthetic DNA reverse transcribed from a specific RNA through the action of the enzyme reverse transcriptase. DNA synthesized by reverse transcriptase using RNA as a template.

Complementary Base Pairing
Professor Pear: Oh, yes. The chemistry of the nitrogenous bases is really the key to the function of DNA. It allows something called complementary base pairing.

Complementary pathways in mammalian female sex determination
Serge Nef* and Jean-Dominique Vassalli
Include ...

The Complement System
Overview
Sometimes the interaction of antibodies with antigen is useful by itself. For example, ...

Complementary metabolic pathways between the brown planthopper and its yeast-like symbiont. (A) Interactions of the amino acid biosynthetic pathways of BPH and YLS within the fat body (FB). The green and blue areas represent the BPH fat body and endosymbiont cell, respectively.

Complementary base pair: a pair of bases in which the identity of one base defines the identity of its partner base. E.g.: In a DNA molecule there are two complementary base pairs--Adenine and thymine, and guanine and cytosine.

Complementary sequence: A sequence of bases that can form a double-stranded structure by matching base pairs. The complementary sequence to G-T-A-C, for instance, is C-A-T-G. Cytosine (C): A base; one of the molecular compon ents of DNA and RNA. Always bonds with guanine (C-G).

Complement proteins - plasma proteins which have a role in nonspecific and specific defenses
Form a cascade effect - if only a few are activated, they will trigger others to become active in great numbers ...

Complementation. When two mutations are combined in an organism and the phenotype is wild type, the mutations are said to complement each other.

Complementation
The ability of a gene to produce a functional gene product which compensates for the mutant phenotype caused by a mutation in another gene.

complementary nucleotides The bonding preferences of nucleotides, Adenine with Thymine, and Cytosine with Guanine. Also referred to as complementary base pairing. PICTURE ...

complement fixation
An immune response in which antigen-antibody complexes activate complement proteins.
complement system ...

Complementation: The production of a wildtype phenotype when two recessive mutations from different genes are brought together.

complementary DNA (cDNA) /kom-plÉ™-MENT-er-ee/ A DNA sequence generated from an RNA (usually mRNA) template. If the introns have been processed out of the RNA, the resulting cDNA will differ from the gene that originally produced the RNA. See also: messenger RNA.

Complementary - Term used to refer to the natural pairing of the nitrogen bases within DNA and RNA. In DNA, cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine with thymine. In RNA, the thymine is replaced with uracil, which pairs with adenine.

Complementarity and Replication
Each strand of DNA has a direction in which it can be read by the cellular machinery, arising from the arrangement of phosphates and sugars in the
A helix-loop-helix dimer bound to DNA.

Complementary sequence
Nucleic acid base sequence that can form a double-stranded structure with another DNA fragment by following base-pairing rules (A pairs with T and C with G). The complementary sequence to GTAC for example, is CATG.
Complex trait ...

[edit] Complement system
Main article: Complement system
The complement system is a biochemical cascade of the immune system that helps clear pathogens from an organism.

Complementation
The process by which two recessive mutants can supply each other's deficiency, such that a heterokaryon or diploid derived fron them and having the trans (repulsion) configuration is phenotypically normal (wild-type) or nearly so.

Complementation test
A mating test to determine whether two different recessive mutations (a1;a2) on opposite chromosomes (trans, a1+/+a2) of a diploid or partial diploid will not complement (ie have a mutant phenotype) each other; but the same two recessive mutations on the same chromosome (cis, ...

Complementary base pairing is very important in the conservation of the base sequence of DNA. This is because adenine always pairs up with thymine and guanine always pairs up with cytosine.

Complement fixation test
a serologic procedure to detect antibodies which combine with specific antigen in the presence of complement ...

Complement and antibodies are both components of the immune system that jointly help in fighting infection and foreign tissue. Here, antibody and complement work together to lyse these "foreign" red blood cells.
3.6 Human platelets crawling on glass ...

complementary base pairs - base-pairing between a larger purine base (adenine or guanine) and a smaller pyrimidine base (cytosine or thymine) while DNA is in its double-helix. (A/T, G/C) ...

Complementation
- Process by which genes on different DNA molecules interact. Usually a protein product is involved, as this is a diffusible molecule that can exert its effect away from the DNA itself.

Complementary genes are different genes that act together to determine a given phenotypical trait.

complement fixation test Immunological method used to detect presence of antibodies that bind (or fix) complement; a standard diagnostic test for many infections.
complementary DNA (cDNA) DNA prepared by transcribing the base sequence from mRNA into DNA by reverse transcriptase; also called copy DNA.

The complementary RNA molecule is synthesized according to base-pairing rules, except that uracil is the complementary base to adenine.
Like a new strand of DNA, the RNA molecule is synthesized in an antiparallel direction to the template strand of DNA.

Fragment complementarity and splicing
Because recognition sequences differ between restriction enzymes, the length and the exact sequence of a sticky-end "overhang", as well as whether it is the 5' or the 3' strand that overhangs, depends on which enzyme produced it.

cDNA
A complementary DNA is a single stranded DNA synthetised from messenger RNA, by reverse transcriptase. It has the complementary base sequence of that mRNA. It must be distinguished from the complementary strand of a double stranded DNA.
View Dr Chromo's lecture on PCR ...

it depends on complementary base pairing
B.
a polysaccharide can hybridize with a DNA strand ...

Is the genetic complement of a neuron different from a skin cell or muscle cell?
This question was first approached by Briggs and King in the 1950s through nuclear transfer experiments in frogs.

cDNA clone: "complementary DNA"; a piece of DNA copied from an mRNA. The term "clone" indicates that this cDNA has been spliced into a plasmid or other vector in order to propagate it.

Complementary DNA (cDNA)
DNA that is synthesized in the laboratory from a messenger RNA template. (ORNL)
Complementary sequence
Nucleic acid base sequence that can form a double-stranded structure with another DNA fragment by following base-pairing rules (A pairs with T and C with G).

The molecules of neurotransmitter bind with complementary receptors (similar to an enzyme and substrate fitting together) in the postsynaptic membrane. This makes the Na+ channels open and depolarisation occurs in the postsynaptic membrane thus starting an action potential.

Protein-fragment Complementation Assay (PCA) Any of a family of protein-protein interaction assays in which a bait protein is expressed as fusion to one of either N- or C-terminal peptide fragments of a reporter protein and prey protein is expressed as fusion to the complementary N- or C-terminal ...

anticodon the complementary codon present on a tRNA molecule.
antigens the immune-stimulating polysaccharides on the surface of cells.
aorta the major artery of the human circulatory system that receives blood from the left ventricle.

This technology can complement other techniques, such as mass spectrometry and yeast two-hybrid assays, to identify thousands of protein-protein interactions.

The pairing of complementary DNA or RNA sequences, via hydrogen bonding, to form a double-stranded polynucleotide. Most often used to describe the binding of a short primer or probe. Antibiotic. A class of natural and synthetic compounds that inhibit the growth of or kill other microorganisms.

cDNA -- complementary DNA produced from a RNA template by the action of RNA- dependent DNA polymerase.

AnticodonA sequence of three bases in tRNA that is complementary to a codon in mRNA. Enables tRNA to sequence amino acids in the order specified by mRNA. AntitheticalAlternative forms of the same antigen produced by allelic genes, e.g.

The centromere also contains the information that preserves the normal chromosome complement (eg, number of chromosomes).
Chromatid — One of two replications of a chromosome formed prior to cell division and joined together at their centromeres.

formation by the lens of the eye 1912 Alexis Carrel for work on suture of blood vessels and transplantation 1913 Charles Robert Richet for the discovery of anaphylaxis 1914 Robert Bárány for research on the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear 1919 Jules Bordet for discovery of the complement in ...

Annealing Formation of double-stranded molecules from two single strands of nucleic acid by base pairing of complementary sequence. Usually achieved incubation at a favourable temperature.

cDNA See complementary DNA.
Cell The basic structural unit of all living organisms. A human cell is made up a central nucleus (containing DNA) a cytoplasm and a outer cell membrane.
Centimorgan (cM) A unit of measure of recombination frequency.

From a biological perspective, the key events here are the complementary reactions of respiration and photosynthesis. Respiration takes carbohydrates and oxygen and combines them to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy.

(In tables, codons are written as RNA codons, using the complementary sequence in RNA nucleotides.) If the code is read with 3 bases at a time, there are 4 X 4 X 4 = 64 combinations of three bases.

In the DNA molecule, they are linked to one another in pairs of long chains, where each member of the pair is complementary to the other. This double-stranded chain is itself twisted into a double helix.

Late in telophase, new centrioles are formed adjacent to existing copies of the organelles so that each daughter cell contains a complementary centriole pair.

Okay, so an anticodon is a three-letter sequence that's complementary, or matches up, to the codon sequence found in the RNA. And the RNA, typically a messenger RNA, codes for proteins.

The technology utilizes DNA fragments that are ligated to complementary adaptor oligonucleotide and subsequent rounds of PCR amplification using primers complementary to the adaptor sequences.

anneal
The joining of single strands of DNA because of the pairing of complementary bases. In PCR, primers anneal to complementary target DNA sequences during cooling of the DNA (after DNA is made single stranded by heating).
ANOVA
Analysis of variance.

Through complementary base pairing, one primer attaches to the top strand at one end of your segment of interest, and the other primer attaches to the bottom strand at the other end. In most cases, 2 primers that are 20 or so nucleotides long will target just one place in the entire genome.

the triplet of tRNA nucleotides that is complementary to, and pairs with a codon in the mRNA
Source: Jenkins, John B. 1990. Human Genetics, 2nd Edition. New York: Harper & Row
...

Ballistic particle-mediated gene transfer. Complementary DNA molecules are adsorbed to gold particles and shot by a pressure gas jet into tissues or culture cells.
HIGH-PRESSURE FREEZING ...

nucleic acid hybridization - coming together (annealling) of single-stranded nucleic acid sequences by hydrogen bonding of complementary bases to form double-stranded molecules; ...

Gene probe a single strand of DNA which has a base sequence complementary to the gene being identified.
Gene technology the process involved in changing the characteristic of an organism by inserting foreign genes into its DNA.

recognition ((biology) the ability of one molecule to attach to another molecule that has a complementary shape)
dimorphism ((biology) the existence of two forms of individual within the same animal species (independent of sex differences)) ...

Genetics: autosome, sex chromosome, DNA, DNA polymerase, DNA replication, allele, genetic diversity, gene, RNA, nucleic acid, nucleotide, complementary base pair, crossing-over, codon, base-pairing rules, deoxyribose, homologous chromosome, cloning , genome, double helix, clone, genetic code, ...

Pool of amino acids / building blocks from which the polypeptides are constructed
ATP and enzymes are needed
Complementary bases are hydrogen-bonded to one another
Structure involved in translation
Messenger RNA (mRNA) ...

Double helix: The twisted-ladder shape that two linear strands of DNA assume when complementary nucleotides on opposing strands bond together.

A method of indirect cell division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of chromosomes of the somatic cells of the species MeSH Related term: cell cycle ...

meiosis [Gr. meiosis - reduction]. Two consecutive nuclear divisions whereby the resultant daughter nuclei contain half the chromosome complement of other somatic cells; occurs at time of gametogenesis. Synonym: reduction division.

Introduction of these Big Ideas also invites discussion of the nature of science. As curricula are designed and implemented, the traditional topics of evolutionary biology should be complemented with ideas on how we come to know what we know about the natural world.

In closing, Charbonneau argues that GAs are a "strong and promising contender" (p.324) in this field, one that can be expected to complement rather than replace traditional optimization techniques, and concludes that "the bottom line, if there is to be one, is that genetic algorithms work, ...

Strung together in chains each base reaches across and forms a pair with its complementary base on the opposite strand; like the rungs of a ladder.

The plasma membrane in the middle of the cell grows inward until it closes to separate the cell into two compartments, each with a full complement of genetic material. The cell then "fissions" at the center, forming two new daughter cells.

See also: See also: DNA, Trans, Sequence, Protein, Molecule





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