Early development of an individual from a fertilized egg (zygote). Following cleavage of the zygote, the major axes are established during the blastula stage; in the subsequent gastrula stage, the early embryo invaginates and acquires three cell layers. (Figure 23-5) ...
the female gametophyte of antiospermous plants, within the embryo begins development
Source: Noland, George B. 1983. General Biology, 11th Edition. St. Louis, MO. C. V. Mosby ...
Embryonic Development: Putting on the finishing touches
Insect (Drosophila) and frog (Xenopus) development (and probably that of animals in general) passes through three rather different (although often overlapping) phases: ...
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THE TERM Embryology, in its widest sense, is applied to the various changes which take place during the growth of an animal from the egg to the adult condition: it is, however, usually restricted to the phenomena which occur before birth.
The ~nic Development
All Phases Explained
Fundamentals of the ~nic Development
1. What is the cell division process directly related to the embryonic growth?
Embryonic stem cell culture
ES cells were grown in gelatinized dishes in Glasgow MEM (Gibco Life Technologies Ltd, Paisley, UK) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (Hyclone GE Healthcare Bio-Sciences AB, Uppsala, Sweden), 1Ă- MEM nonessential amino acids, 1 mM sodium pyruvate, 50 ?
~s and mouse strains
Wild-type embryos were from ICR outbred mice (Harlan-Sprague-Dawley, Indianapolis, USA). The TOPGAL mouse line was kindly provided by Elaine Fuchs .
Production of transgenic mice ...
~ Term applied to the zygote after the beginning of mitosis that produces a multicellular structure.
~ sac Alternate term applied to the angiosperm female gametophyte contained within a megaspore. PICTURE ...
~nic stem (ES) cells: Cell lines derived from early embryos that have the potential to differentiate into all types of somatic cells as well as to form germ line cells, and hence whole animals, when injected into early embryos.
(em-bree-oh) [Gk. en, in + bryein, to swell]
A developing stage of multicellular organisms; in humans, the stage in the development of offspring from the first division of the zygote until body structures begin to appear; about the ninth week of gestation. See Fetus.
~ sac ...
Embryology is the study of the early development of organisms.
Epidemiology is the study of the demographics of disease processes, and includes, but is not limited to, the study of epidemics. Public health
Genetics is the study of genes, and their role in biological inheritance.
~nic carcinoma cells (EC cells). Cells derived from embryonic carcinoma (teratoma) of 129 mice. Generally replaced by embryonic stem cells.
~nic tissue Undifferentiated tissue with the potential to develop into any of the various specialized tissues.
~nic stem (ES) cells An ~nic cell that can continue to replicate indefinitely and serve as a source of cells that can change into other, specialized kinds of cells.
Embryology: blastula, ectoderm, endoderm, fertilization, gestation period. meiosis, mesoderm, mitosis, reproduction, gamete, zygote, differentiation, external fertilization, hermaphrodite, homologous structures, internal fertilization, ovum, placenta, reproductive system, sexual reproduction ...
~ [Gr. ~n]. The stage in a developing organism after cleavage has occurred and before hatching or birth.
endocardium [Gr. endon - within; Gr. kardia - The inner layer of the heart rudiment that arises from splanchnic mesoderm and fuses with the epimyocardium to form the heart wall.
~ forms when all the organs of the body have taken shape.
~logy the study of ~nic development.
endergonic reaction chemical reactions in which energy is obtained and trapped from the environment.
Embryonic stem cell ethical debate
A blastocyst is a stage of development of an embryo when it is around five days old and made up of about 100 cells.
embryology - study of embryogenesis, the development of animals and plants from fertilization to birth/hatching.
epiboly - literally, "over the ball," usually the growth of epidermal ectoderm to cover the surface of the embryo during gastrulation.
~nic development of the vertebrate brain reflects its evolution from three anterior bulges of the neural tube.
~: A developing offspring during the period when most of its internal organs are forming. It is called fetus in the next stage of development.
Another difficulty in comparing traits between species rests on the fact that homologous structures not present in the adult organism often do appear in some stage of embryonic development.
~ adoption is a procedure in which an embryo created from the egg of a woman and the sperm of a man is transferred into the uterus of another woman to be raised by her and her partner.
~nic stem (ES) cells
An embryonic cell that can replicate indefinitely, transform into other types of cells, and serve as a continuous source of new cells.
~nic/maternal organ that serves nutritional and respiratory functions of the mammalian fetus. It is composed of the ~nic chorion and maternal uterine endometrium, allowing provision of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus and removal of carbon dioxide and other waste products.
~nic germ layers begin to be committed toward distinct developmental fates
Cell migrations are a prominent feature of this developmental stage ...
Embryology supports the theory of evolution by showing how our embryo's are similar at birth, but once we start to develop we take different paths and start not to look so much alike.How does embryology support the theory of evolution?
Embryonic stem cells can be cultured in vitro; under certain conditions they can be induced to differentiate into various cell types.
~logists select which embryos will be placed into the uterus. Therefore they decide the fate of new individuals as they choose which ones will survive and which ones will die.
Embryonic stem cells have the other advantage that they are multipotent and can turn into many different types of tissue in culture and therefore it's possible to learn from studying embryonic stem cells how differentiation occurs.
~ The early developmental stage that, through ~logical development, ultimately becomes an adult individual. In plants, that portion of a seed that will form the growing seedling following germination; it has a radicle, apical meristem, and ~nic leaf or leaves.
~logy (the branch of biology that studies the formation and early development of living organisms)
bionomics; ecology; environmental science (the branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms and their environment) ...
~ an animal or plant that develops from a zygote prior to birth, hatching or germination
Emulsion test a biochemical test that can be used to show the presence of lipid
Endocrine glands a gland that secretes a hormone directly into the blood ...
~logy - the study of the development of ~ (from fecondation to birth). See also topobiology.
Entomology - the study of insects
Environmental Biology - the study of the natural world, as a whole or in a particular area, especially as affected by human activity ...
in ~logy, delimitation of a specific area in an organ-forming field, giving definite shape and limits to the organ primordium.
Please contribute to this project, if you have more information about this term feel free to edit this page ...
5) ~ development: Shortly after fertilization, the zygote then begins to develop. This can happen in an egg or inside the mother. ~ development is a very complex series of events. It is even more complex than baseball's infield fly rule.
The ~ proper begins to form from an inner cell mass within the blastocyst. Some parts of the blastocyst will form the extra ~nic membranes such as the amnion, chorion and parts of the placenta. The ~ forms on a plate-like layer of cells.
7.4 ~nic heart cells
Individual cells from the chick heart start beating spontaneously when grown in culture. Once good "electrical" connections are formed between adjacent cells, entire sheets of cells begin beating in unison.
7.5 Bacterial growth - Serratia sp.
~nic primordium from which a specific part of the organism develops. The rudimentary basis of an organ in an ~.
Early cells that serve as the mitotic progenitor of an organ in organogenesis.
Isolate ~nic stem cells that originated from male brown mice with a normal OhNo gene (blue).
2. Add Inactive Gene With Marker
To these cells, add a copy containing a mutated, inactive OhNo gene (red), and a drug resistance marker gene (pink).
The growing ~ releases a hormone called gibberellic acid and some enzymes are produced and released in response to this.
The soluble products of digestion are delivered to the cotyledons, root and shoot. They respire aerobically and grow in size.
ES cells ~nic stem cells. Cultured cells derived from the pluripotent inner cell mass of blastocyst stage ~s. Used for gene targeting by homologous recombination (see Chapter 6).
See ES Cells in the MGI Glossary.
NHGRI Narrower terms: clone, ~nic stem cells ES, gametes, germ cells, hematopoietic stem cells, Mesenchymal Stem Cells MSC, pluripotent stem cells, somatic cell, stem cells, CHO cells Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, T cells Related terms: cell cycle, cell division, cell line, ...
Growth faster than ~ in early pregnancy
Development increases in complexity
Differentiating of inner cell mass of blastocyst
First month → beginning of a gut, developed kidney, brain, beating heart
Second month → all main organ systems present; ~ is called a fetus ...
Chorionic villus sampling -- an invasive prenatal diagnostic procedure involving removal of villi from the human chorion to obtain chromosomes and cell products for diagnosis of disorders in the human ~.
The Visible ~: The Visible ~ teaches the first four weeks of human development from fertilization to somite development. Very easy to follow.
Microinjection requires a large number of fertilized ~s due to the high mortality rate. Pronuclear visualization is necessary and requires significant ~ manipulation, including centrifugation, in many domestic animal species.
There are also ~nic stem cells, and these are derived from three and a half days in the mouse and about six- to eight-day ~s in people, and these are cells with even more potential than the adult cells, because an ~nic stem cell derived in the proper way can give rise to neural cells, ...
There are differences in the appearance of early vertebrate ~s. Amphibians rapidly form a ball of cells in early development. Birds, reptiles and mammals form a disk. The shape of the early ~ is a result of different yolk concentrations in the eggs.
Paired-box containing genes found in many species that are involved in regulation of early ~genesis. Pax genes code for (DNA binding) transcription factors. The paired box refers to a particular conserved DNA sequence that is shared by the different members of the Pax gene family.
~logy if you at the development of different kinds of creatures you can see changes as they grow and develop from the fertilized egg to the full juvenile offspring.
The female gametophyte is the ~ sac and forms in the following way.
The megaspore mother cell undergoes meiosis to form 4 haploid (N) megaspores.
One of the 4 will continue to develop, while the other 3 dissolve.
The most widely known source of stem cells is human/animal ~s, prompting controversy over stem cell research based on bioethics and the view that life begins at conception.
Illustrated in Figure 2 is a fluorescence digital image of a Swiss mouse ~ fibroblast cell stained with fluorescent probes targeting the nucleus (blue), mitochondria network (red), Golgi complex (green) and nucleoli (magenta) to demonstrate the proximity of these structures.
The seeds have an ~, and stored food in the form of starch, proteins and oils enclosed in it.
Most of the seeds are very dry and need water for its growth.
The uptake of water by the seeds is known as ?imbibition?.
All the cellular metabolic process occurring in the seed requires water.
The procedure by which one makes a transgenic mouse involves the injection of DNA into a fertilized ~ at the pro-nuclear stage. The DNA is generally cloned, and may be experimentally altered. It will become incorporated into the genome of the ~.
The chicken has long been used by biologists to study how ~s develop, and chicken researchers have contributed knowledge about viruses and cancer. The sequenced DNA came from the Red Jungle Fowl, a wild ancestor of the domestic chicken. This is the first bird to have its genome sequenced.
endosperm. The tissue containing stored food in a seed that surrounds the ~ and is eventually digested by the ~ as it grows.
English walnut. The walnut species (Juglans regia) used for the selection of commercial scion cultivars; origin believed in Persia (= Persian walnut).
Linear DNA is injected into a fertilized ~ at the pro-nuclear stage and may be incorporated into the genome. Injected ~s are implanted into a foster mother. Progenitors are screened for transgene in their genome.
Fertilization can result in ~s that are 2n + 1 (a "trisomy") or 2n - 1.
Abnormal copy numbers of one or more chromosomes is usually, but not always, fatal (Example: Down syndrome)
Polyploidy can occur when whole sets of chromosomes fail to separate at meiosis I or II.
Seeds provide a protective coat so that the ~ plant can develop when it finds a nice piece of soil. But remember this: gymnosperms have not developed the ability to make flowers. Flowers are an evolutionary advancement after seeds.
Blastocyst the hollow ball stage of ~nic development
(blasto = bud‚ sprout)
Botanist a person who studies plants
(botan = grass‚ pasture) ...
The enlarged posterior portion of the oviduct in which the ~ implants a develops in viviparous species. It is also called the womb of female humans.
Covered in BIOL1020 Lab 6 Mitosis & Meiosis
inflammation of the organ in the uterus to which the ~ is attached ...
A variant of clinical magnetic resonance imaging, which has been adapted for non-invasive studies of small samples that range in size from rats to frog ~s. Typical spatial resolutions are in the range of tens to hundreds of micrometres.
MOLAR EXTINCTION COEFFICIENT ...
Their reproduction is quite different from the most common type of cellular reproduction. They produce no ~s, but reproduce by means of tiny reproductive packages called spores.
Fertilization of a haploid ovum by a haploid sperm results in formation of a diploid ~. Many microorganisms are haploid.
Haploinsufficiency — Refer to definition of ‘Hemizygous’ below.
Haplotype — The physical combination of alleles present on a single chromosome.
See also: What is the meaning of Cells, Organ, Trans, Human, Biology?