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Eukaryote

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eukaryotes
Class of organisms, composed of one or more cells containing a membrane-enclosed nucleus and organelles, that constitutes one of the three distinct evolutionary lineages of modern-day organisms; also called eukarya. Includes all organisms except viruses and prokaryotes.


eukaryote
an organism having eukaryotic cells, i.e., those with a true nucleus
Source: Jenkins, John B. 1990. Human Genetics, 2nd Edition. New York: Harper & Row ...

Eukaryote
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Eukaryote
(Science: cell biology) organism whose cells have chromosomes with nucleosomal structure and separated from the cytoplasm by a two membrance nuclear envelope and compartmentalisation of a function in distinct cytoplasmic organelles.

Regardless of your chocolate preference, you belong to team Eukaryote. Well, at least 90% of you does.

~S - CELLS WITH PARTS
This is the place to learn about cells with a nucleus and all sorts of organelles. ~s are what you think of when you think of a classic "cell." There are cells without organized nuclei or organelles that are called prokaryotes, but not on this page.

~s
Basic structure
The basic eukaryotic cell contains the following:
plasma membrane
glycocalyx (components external to the plasma membrane)
cytoplasm (semifluid)
cytoskeleton - microfilaments and microtubules that suspend organelles, give shape, and allow motion ...

~s
Any living organism containing at least one cell which includes organelles (ie nucleus, chloroplast, mitochondrion). eg. Amoeba, human.
View : Dr Chromo's school on 'The cell ' ...

Gene Control in ~s
Much more complex - take humans for example
Every cell (except gametes) have the same DNA, with the same information
This is known as genetic totipotency ...

A high percentage of the proteins encoded by the up- and downregulated genes are highly conserved in a variety of 'model' ~s (Ashbya gossypii, Caenorhabditis elegans, Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens) [51,52], ...

There are several methods used by ~s.
Altering the rate of transcription of the gene. This is the most important and widely-used strategy and the one we shall examine here.
However, ~s supplement transcriptional regulation with several other methods: ...

~s
The Kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plants and Animals are the other five kingdoms and they are composed solely of eukaryotic organisms. Eukaryotic cells have a much more complex architecture that was described only after the advent of the electron microscope.

~s are organisms consisting of one or more eukaryotic cells (as opposed to proykaryotic cells); such cells contain membrane-bound nuclei, as well as organelles.

~ -- n. An organism whose cells have cytoskeletons for support and their DNA contained in a nucleus, separated from the other contents of the cell; e.g., protists, plants, animals, and fungi; eukaryotic- adj.

~ A type of cell found in many organisms including single-celled protists and multicellular fungi, plants, and animals; characterized by a membrane-bounded nucleus and other membraneous organelles; an organism composed of such cells.

~s
Any member of a group of organisms that contains all plants and animals apart form bacteria and blue-green algae. Their cells possess a membrane-bound nucleus containing the genetic material.
F ...

~ genes can be expressed in prokaryotic host cells.
A clone can sometimes be screened for a desired gene based on detection of its encoded protein.
Inducing a cloned eukaryotic gene to function in a prokaryotic host can be difficult.

~
[Gk. eu, good + karyon, nut, kernel]
An organism whose cells contain membraine-bound organelles and whose DNA is enclosed in a cell nucleus and is associated with proteins.
eumetazoa ...

~s cells that contain a nucleus and internal cellular bodies called organelles.
evolution changes that occur within populations and organisms that make individuals able to adapt to their external environment.
exergonic reaction a chemical reaction in which energy is released.

~ /yoo-KARE-ee-yət, -ee-ote/ Organisms, both unicellular and multicellular, in which there is a membrane-bounded cell nucleus and other well-developed organelles. All organisms other than viruses and prokaryotes are ~s. See also: prokaryote, chromosome. MORE INFORMATION ...

~s: Organisms whose cells have their genetic material packed in a membrane- surrounded, structurally discrete nucleus and with well- developed cell organelles. ~s include all organisms except archaebacteria and eubacteria (cg. prokaryotes). IUPAC Biotech ...

~ organisms whose cells have a true nucleus
(eu = good‚ well‚ true; karyon = nut‚ kernel‚ nucleus)
Euryhaline having a wide range of salt concentration tolerance
(eury = broad‚ wide; halin‚ hali‚ halo = salt‚ the sea) ...

~s - Organisms whose cell interiors are characterized by separation into organelles and whose genetic material is enclosed by a nuclear membrane. Compare with prokaryotes.

~
Cell or organism with membrane-bound, structurally discrete nucleus and other well-developed subcellular compartments. ~s include all organisms except viruses, bacteria, and bluegreen algae.
See also: prokaryote, chromosome.
Evolutionarily conserved ...

In ~s
Self-replicating stretches of eukaryotic genomes known as retrotransposons utilize reverse transcriptase to move from one position in the genome to another via a RNA intermediate. They are found abundantly in the genomes of plants and animals.

~s have only 10% of their DNA coding for proteins. Humans may have a little as 1% coding for proteins.

~ chromosomes are made of DNA and proteins.
4.1.2 Define gene, allele and genome.
Gene: a heritable factor that controls a specific characteristic.

~, nucleus, nucleolus, endoplasmic reticulum, centriole, Golgi, cytoskeleton, mitochondria, vacuole, cell theory
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~ Having a true nucleus; a cell that has membranous organelles, most notably the nucleus.
eukaryotic cell A cell containing a membrane-bounded nucleus and membrane-bounded organelles.Compare prokaryotic cell.

In ~s, a gene often contains altering sequences known as exons (expressed codons) and introns (interrupting codons).

In ~s, the rRNA in ribosomes is organized into four strands, and in prokaryotes, three strands. ~ ribosomes are produced and assembled in the nucleolus.

In ~s, specialized chromatin structures contribute to multiple DNA-related processes, including transcription, replication and repair.

3) In ~s the protons are pumped across the inner membrane of the mitochondria, in prokaryotes (bacteria) the protons are pumped across the cell membrane ...

Sex in ~s involves two processes, meiosis and syngamy.
Sexual organisms exist in haploid and diploid states. In the haploid state, they have a single (1N) set of chromosomes and so a single allele of each gene.

In the ~ cell nucleus RNA can be found dispersed in the nuclear fluid, along with DNA, and as the main constituent of the nucleolus.

Cap: All ~s have at the 5' end of their messages a structure called a "cap", consisting of a 7-methylguanosine in 5'-5' triphosphate linkage with the first nucleotide of the mRNA. It is added post-transcriptionally, and is not encoded in the DNA.
...

Chromosomes exist in pairs in higher ~s. (See Chromosome walking.) Chromosome walking. Working from a flanking DNA marker, overlapping clones are successively identified that span a chromosomal region of interest. (See Chromosome.) Cistron.

Artificial chromosomeA vector constructed from host cell chromosomal elements such as origin of replication, telomeres and centromere (in ~s). So that it replicates and is segregated during cell division in the same way as a normal chromosome.

In ~s, it is very clearly that MAP kinase (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signal transduction pathways are important routes for the channelling of extracellular stimuli to cytoplasm or nucleus.

These are: the prokaryotes ("ordinary" bacteria), archaebacteria (thermophilic, methanogenic and halophilic bacteria) and ~s.

But first I want help and make sure that you understand what's going on, now if we take a look at any living organism that's a ~ i.e.

Recent evidence strongly suggests that lateral gene transfer involving ~s may be more prevalent than once thought. In some DNA sequences, bacterial or archaeal sequences cluster in clades that are otherwise strictly eukaryotic.

DNA usually occurs as linear chromosomes in ~s, and circular chromosomes in prokaryotes. A chromosome is an organized structure consisting of DNA and histones.

When we divide the organisms that live on this planet, we make a distinction between those that have a nucleus, that are called ~s, and those that don't have a nuclei, which we call prokaryotes.

The cellular organelle in ~s that contains the genetic material.
Related Terms:
~
Cell or organism with membrane-bound, structurally discrete nucleus and other well-developed subcellular compartments. ~s include all organisms except viruses, bacteria, and blue-green algae.

Double stranded RNA (dsRNA): In ~s, it is an accidental byproduct of transcriptional process. It may occur as the genome of certain viruses (such as reovirus) or may be produced during viral replication as a general marker for viral infection.

Histone
A basic protein from ~s (or Archae) which binds to DNA, forming nucleosomes, and packaging the DNA into chromatin.
Histone-like proteins
Proteins from bacteria which bind to DNA, and compact the DNA.

- A nuclear organelle of ~s, associated with the chromosomal site of genes coding for rRNA
Nucleosome
- The basic structural unit of eukaryotic chromosome, composed of an octomer and DNA ...

As with ~s, the membrane controls the permeability of the cell and is the major site of energy metabolism. In bacteria, either the electron transport system or the site of photosynthetic energy metabolism is located in the cytoplasmic membrane.

Microbiology: aerobic, anaerobic, binary fission, asexual reproduction, ~, exponential growth, fermentation, plankton, prokaryote, protist
Physiology: carbohydrates, catalyst, enzyme, glycolysis, hormone, lipid, metabolism, protein, respiration, Physiology ...

Nucleus: The cellular organelle in ~s that contains the genetic material. The center of a cell, where all of the DNA, packaged in chromosomes, is contained.
PCR: See Polymerase Chain Reaction.

The pre-tRNA of prokaryotes and ~s has extra nucleotides at the 5' and 3' extremities and in some eukaryotic pre-tRNAs introns are also present. Maturation of tRNA precursors is a multistep enzymatic process consisting of nucleolytic size reducing reactions and of nucleotide modifications.

1. The membrane bound organelle containing the genome of ~s organized into chromosomes.
2. The center portion of an atom which contains the protons and neutrons.

gonidia - reproductive cells of colonial photosynthetic ~s such as Volvox.
granular/granule cell - most abundant neuron type in the cerebellar cortex of the vertebrate brain.

Nucleus
The term introduced by Brown (1833) for the more or less spherical structure which occures in cells and stains deeply with basic dyes. The cellular organelle in ~s that contains the genetic material.

cerevisiae, the centromeres (CENs) are comprised of specific DNA sequences (CDEI, CDEII, and CDEIII), though in most ~s this is not the case.

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Eukaryotes, Organ, Cell, Cells, Protein?

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