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Euploidy is the state of a cell or organism having an integral multiple of the monoploid number, possibly excluding the sex-determining chromosomes. For example, a human cell has 46 chromosomes, which is an integer multiple of the monoploid number, 23.

Euploidy, or the euploid number is the normal number of chromosomes within a cell for a species, for example the euploid number of chromosomes in a human cell is 46.
1 Haploid ...

In primates (in contrast to sheep, cattle, and mice), the process of removing the resident nucleus causes molecules associated with the centrosome to be lost as well.

Aneuploidy having an abnormal number of chromosomes
(aneu = without; ploid = set of chromosomes)
Angiospermae Subdivision of plants within Division Spermatophyta which produce flowers and bear seeds enclosed in an ovary
(angio = vessel‚ receptacle‚ container; sperma = seed) ...

aneuploidy Variation in chromosome number involving one or a small number of chromosomes; commonly involves the gain or loss of a single chromosome.
angina Chest pain, especially during physical exertion or emotional stress, that is caused by gradual blockage of the coronary arteries.

The condition of a cell or organism that has one or more complete sets of chromosomes.
Related Terms:
The term was proposed by Waldeyer (1888) for the individual threads within a cell nucleus (gk. chroma, colour; soma, body).

euploidy Change in chromosome number from one generation to the next in which there is an addition or deletion of a complete set of chromosomes in the progeny; the most common type is polyploidy.
euryhaline Able to tolerate wide ranges of saltwater concentrations.

5. What is aneuploidy? What are the conditions caused by the aneuploidies?
Aneuploidy is an abnormal number of chromosomes in the cells of an individual.

Aneuploidy -- state of having variant chromosome number (too many or too few). (i.e. Down syndrome, Turner syndrome).

AneuploidyHaving an abnormal number of chromosomes, i.e., not an exact multiple of the haploid number. For example, Downs syndrome (three #21 chromosomes) or Klinefelter syndrome (XXY males). AnticodonA sequence of three bases in tRNA that is complementary to a codon in mRNA.

Torres EM, Williams BR, Amon A: Aneuploidy: cells losing their balance.
Disteche CM: Dosage compensation of the sex chromosomes.
Spradling AC: The organization and amplification of two chromosomal domains containing Drosophila chorion genes. ...

Bond U, Neal C, Donnelly D, James TC: Aneuploidy and copy number breakpoints in the genome of lager yeasts mapped by microarray hybridisation. ...

Aneuploidy — The state of having an abnormal number of chromosomes. A euploid human karyotype has 46 chromosomes (figure 1). Aneuploidy can affect the entire somatic cell population, as in trisomy 21 in which an extra chromosome results in Down Syndrome.

In haploids, in X-linked genes in fly or human males or in dipoloids as a result of aneuploidy or deletion.
Related Terms:
The term coined by Johannsen (1909) for the fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity.

If the organism survives, aneuploidy typically leads to a distinct phenotype.
Aneuploidy can also occur during failures of the mitotic spindle.
If this happens early in development, the aneuploid condition will be passed along by mitosis to a large number of cells.

Results in aneuploidy
Usually embryo lethal
Trisomy 21, exception leading to Downs syndrome
Sex chromosomes
Turner syndrome: monosomy X
Klinefelter syndrome: XXY
Translocation and deletion: transfer of a piece of one chromosome to another or loss of fragment of a chromosome.

Non disjunction and changes in number (pre and post zygotic); polyploidy, aneuploidy, spontaneous abortions (SABs), advanced maternal age (AMA)
Changes in structure
Inherited and de novo structural changes; translocations, deletions and inversions, isochromosomes; normal variants ...

chromosomal mutations /krome-ə-ZOME-əl/ Changes in the karyotype; may result from a translocation, an inversion, aneuploidy, or polyploidy. MORE INFORMATION ...

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Ploidy, Aneuploidy, Chromosome, Aneuploid, Human?

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