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Biology  Gamete  Gametogenesis

Gametes are haploid cells that carry reproductive functions produced through meiosis. Gametes carried by males are called sperms and gametes carried by females are called eggs.

similar gametes (sex cells)
Source: Noland, George B. 1983. General Biology, 11th Edition. St. Louis, MO. C. V. Mosby ...

gametes Haploid reproductive cells (ovum and sperm). PICTURE
gametophyte The haploid stage of a plant exhibiting alternation of generations, generates gametes by the process of mitosis.

gametes /GAM-eets/ n. Haploid reproductive cells. Two gametes, one of each sex, fuse during fertilization to produce a zygote during sexual reproduction.

Because pairs of chromosomes separate during meiosis I, gametes are haploid, that is, they carry only one copy of each chromosome. An Aa individual therefore produces two kinds of gametes: A and a.

Gametes from human ES cells?
Working with mice, several laboratories report that they have been able to coax ES cells to differentiate into cells with some of the properties of gametes, including ...

gametes sex cells of parent organisms; usually haploid cells.
gastrin a hormone produced by digestive glands to influence digestive processes.
gene the functional segment of chromosomes.

Gametes - Cells with the haploid number of chromosomes. Gametes are created out of germ cells. The sperm and eggs involved in sexual reproduction are gametes.

Gametes are haploid cells; that is, they contain one complete set of chromosomes (the actual number varies from species to species).

gametes Mature haploid cells (sperm and ova) that fuse to form a zygote.
gametic meiosis. Meiosis that occurs during formation of the gametes, as in humans and other metazoa.

Gametes arise from choanocytes or amoebocytes.
The eggs are retained, but sperm are carried out the osculum by the water current.
Sperm are drawn into neighboring individuals and fertilize eggs in the mesohyl.

Gametes that do not undergo syngamy shortly after they are formed or activated, die.
When gametes are different sizes, the larger are called eggs and the smaller sperm.
Organisms that produce sperm are male, those that produce eggs are female.

A. gametes
B. gametophyte
C. sporophyte
D. all of the above
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The gametes of a plant of genotype SsYy should have the genotypes:
A. Ss and Yy
B. SY and sy ...

Both gametes the same (isogamy).
Like other species of Cladophora, C. callicoma has flagellated gametes which are identical in appearance and ability to move.
Gametes of two distinct sizes (anisogamy).

Fusion of gametes formed by different individuals; as opposed to self-fertilization.
crossing over
The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during synapsis of meiosis I.

Heterogamy gametes differ in size and structure and in their roles in reproduction.
Heterotrophic nutrition form of feeding in which the organism consumes complex organic material.

noun, plural: gametes
(1) A reproductive cell or sex cell that contains the haploid set of chromosomes, e.g. spermatozoon or sperm cell (male reproductive cell) and egg cell or ovum (female reproductive cell).

When it's all over, you are left with four haploid cells that are called gametes. The eventual purpose of the gametes will be to find other gametes with which they can combine. When they do, they will form a new organism.

somatic cell: Any cell in the body except gametes and their precursors. [DOE] Are the precursors stem cells?
All body cells, except the reproductive cells. NHGRI See also somatic cells Molecular Medicine ...

In instances of sexual reproduction, the cellular process of meiosis is first necessary so that haploid daughter cells, or gametes, can be produced.

to provide a necessary cooperative effect that enhances survival. Genetic linkage reflects a lack of meiotic crossovers between two genes (see exercises on Gametes under Linkage and Linkage Pedigrees).

The resulting 2n gametes, if fertilized by normal sperm, create 3n zygotes (triploid).
Organisms with an odd number of chromosome sets cannot produce viable gametes (Example: seedless fruits).

The reduction division process by which haploid gametes and spores are formed, consisting of a single duplication of the genetic material followed by two mitotic divisions. Messenger RNA (mRNA).

Artificial insemination -- the placement of sperm into a female reproductive tract or the mixing of male and female gametes by other than natural means. Autosome -- a nuclear chromosome other than the X- and Y-chromosomes.

Gametes are haploid (one copy of each autosome) (figure 1). Normal hepatocytes are tetraploid.

Most animal cells except the gametes have a diploid set of chromosomes. The diploid human genome has 46 chromosomes.
See also: haploid (ORNL)
Directed evolution ...

The purpose of meiosis is to produce haploid (1n) gametes. Another purpose is to recombine genes from the parents of the individual in whom meiosis is occurring.

Meiotic drivers are genes that subvert the normal rules of inheritance to ensure that they are present in more than their fair share of gametes in the next generation [1].

This leads the production of gametes that either have a chromosome too many or too few. Gametes with a missing chromosome usually die quite fast however gametes with an extra chromosome can survive.

They produce pollen, which contains the male gametes (sperm). The female parts of the flower are the stigma, style, and ovary. The egg (female gamete) is produced in the ovary.

In a finite population (as all biological populations are) the gametes contributing to the next generation are a sample of the alleles in the gene pool.

All of the alleles available among the reproductive members of a population from which gametes can be drawn.
Related Terms:
Allele ...

The mass of DNA in somatic cells is constant, while gametes have half this mass.
DNA is associated with the chromosomes (but so is protein).
Mutagens that affect DNA molecules cause increased phenotypic mutation.

This means that when somatic cells are produced from two gametes, one allele comes from the mother, one from the father. These alleles may be the same (true-breeding organisms, e.g. ww and rr in Fig. 3), or different (hybrids, e.g. wr in Fig. 3).

Meiosis results in four rather than two daughter cells (gametes), each with a haploid set of each chromosome pair. In meiosis I the prophase is more complex than that of mitosis.

Conclusion : in most cases, the division results in spores or gametes. The cell has given rise to four daughter cells, each with a different set of chromosomes.

Two successive nuclear divisions (with corresponding cell divisions) that produce haploid gametes (in animals) or haploid sexual spores (in plants and fungi) having one-half of the genetic material of the original cell.

During the production of sex cells (gametes) in animals
In spore formation which precedes gamete production in plants
Haploid gametes (sperm ovum) - sexual reproduction
DNA in a cell replicates only once, but cell divides twice ...

female (being the sex (of plant or animal) that produces fertilizable gametes (ova) from which offspring develop)
male (being the sex (of plant or animal) that produces gametes (spermatozoa) that perform the fertilizing function in generation) ...

Fertilization: the union of male and female gametes to form a zygote, initiating biological reproduction.
Gamete: a mature sexual reproductive cell, as a sperm or egg, that unites with another cell during fertilization to form a new organism.

Epidemic spawning. Simultaneous shedding of gametes by a large number of individuals
Epipelagic zone. The 0- to 150-m-depth zone, seaward of the shelf-slope break
Epiphyte. Microalgal organism living on a surface (e.g., on a seaweed frond) ...

Lineage of germ cells, which give rise to gametes and thus participate in formation of the next generation of organisms; also the genetic material transmitted from one generation to the next through the gametes.
glial cells ...

Gamete: A mature reproductive cell that is capable of fusing with another gamete of the opposite sex to form a zygote. Male gametes are typically known as sperm and female gametes a typically known as eggs. See also fertilization, zygote.

Self-fertilization in a hermaphroditic species where the two gametes fused in fertilization come from the same individual.
A locus that is located on an autosome (i.e., not on a sex chromosome).

- Mode of asexual production in which there is no fusion of gametes but the structure involved are commonly concerned in sexual reproduction.
Arabidopsis ...

So there has to be a way to take those paired chromosomes and break them apart in order to make gametes; sperm and eggs. That's what meiosis is all about.

Gene flow: The exchange of genetic traits between populations by movement of individuals, gametes, or spores. It involves the spread of new variants among different populations through dispersal.

heterogamy - state of having gametes of different sizes produced by different mating types or sexes.

A full set of genetic material consisting of paired chromosomes, one from each parental set. Most animal cells except the gametes have a diploid set of chromosomes. The diploid human genome has 46 chromosomes.
See also: haploid ...

Fertilization: Fusion of female and male haploid gametes to form a diploid zygote from which a new individual develops.
Fetus: Final development stage before birth (following embryo).

Disjunction The normal process by which the two homologs of each chromosome in a meiotic cell separate and move to different gametes (see Chapter 5).
Distal A relative term meaning closer to the telomere; the opposite of proximal.

The process of nuclear division associated with the formation of gametes or of haploid cells from a diploid.

Gametophyte in plants and algae‚ the 1n generation which produces gametes (eggs and sperm)
(gamet = marriage‚ reproduction; phyto = plant) ...

gametogenesis [Gr. gamos - a marriage; Gr. genesis - origin, descent]. The formation of male and female sex cells or gametes (spermatozoa and ova, respectively) from germ cells.

haploid -- Having a single set of chromosomes in the nucleus of each cell. Mosses, and many protists and fungi, are haploid, as are some insects, bryophytes, and the gametes of all organisms. Contrast with diploid.

Gamete (1N): NUCLEAR ENVELOPES form and chromosomes disperse as CHROMATIN. Meiosis has produced 4 DAUGHTER CELLS, each with 1N chromosomes and 1N DNA. Later, in fertilization, male and female 1N gametes will fuse to form a 2N ZYGOTE.

of years mutations and random genetic drift erode the Y chromosome, turning it into a genetic junkyard. In contrast, genes on the X are present in both males and females; X chromosomes, like autosomes, recombine in production of female gametes.

MeiosisThe type of cell division that occurs in sex cells by which gametes having the haploid number of chromosomes are produced from diploid cells. Messenger RNA (mRNA)Type of RNA polymerase using DNA as a template.

See also: See also: Gamete, Organ, Cells, Chromosome, Cell

Biology  Gamete  Gametogenesis

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