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Genetic material

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Genetic material
a gene, a part of a gene, a group of genes, or fragments of many genes, on a molecule of dna, a fragment of dna, a group of dna molecules, or fragments of many dna molecules. Could refer to anything from a small fragment of dna to the entire genome of an organism.

Nucleic Acids and the Genetic Material Problem Set 1
Problem 7: Transformation
Frederick Griffith accidentally discovered transformation when attempting to develop a vaccine for pneumonia.

Home » A-level » Biology » DNA and the Genetic Code » Evidence that DNA is the Genetic Material
Evidence that DNA is the Genetic Material
DNA and the Genetic Code ...

Genetic material
Two different kinds of genetic material exist: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Most organisms use DNA for their long-term information storage, but some viruses (e.g., retroviruses) have RNA as their genetic material.

Genetic Material
Viruses may carry DNA or RNA as their genetic material. DNA may be single- or double-stranded (ssDNA and dsDNA), and it may be circular or linear.

See genome.
Related Terms:
All the ~ in the chromosomes of a particular organism; its size is generally given as its total number of base pairs.

~ from the homologous chromosomes is randomly swapped
This creates four unique chromatids
Since each chromatid is unique, the overall genetic diversity of the gametes is greatly increased
Metaphase I ...

single circular double stranded DNA
complex chromosomes usually in pairs; each with a single double stranded DNA molecule and associated proteins contained in a nucleus ...

The ~ is able to specify a large variety of proteins. The nature of the ~ was unknown for a long time . The cell is composed of lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids, which do not have a lot of variety, and proteins which do have a lot of variety.

The ~ of an organism consists of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). A gene is a segment of DNA that encodes a protein (or a structural ribonucleic acid [RNA] for example, ribosomal RNA), along with the regulatory elements that control expression of that gene.

The ~ in retroviruses is in the form of RNA molecules, while the ~ of their hosts is in the form of DNA. When a retrovirus infects a host cell, it will introduce its RNA together with some enzymes into the cell.

The ~ found in mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell. Not inherited in the same fashion as nucleic DNA.
See also: cell, DNA, genome, nucleus
Mitosis ...

The first ~ was probably RNA, not DNA.
Thomas Cech and Sidney Altman found that RNA molecules not only play a central role in protein synthesis, but also are important catalysts in modern cells.

germ plasm ~ that may be preserved for future agricultural, commercial, and ecological values (plant seeds or parts or animal eggs, sperm, and embryos).
germ Embryo of a cereal grain.
germinate To resume growth and increase metabolic activity, ...

transfer of ~s from one bacterial cell to another by a virus (phage)
Source: Noland, George B. 1983. General Biology, 11th Edition. St. Louis, MO. C. V. Mosby

Exchange of ~ between maternal and paternal chromatids during meiosis to produce recombined chromosomes. (Figure 8-18) See also recombination.

Germ line: ~ transmitted from one generation to the next through the gametes. A germ line mutation exists in all cells of the offspring formed from that gamete.

All the ~ in the chromosomes of a particular organism; its size is generally given as its total number of base pairs.
Related Terms:
The term was proposed by Waldeyer (1888) for the individual threads within a cell nucleus (gk. chroma, colour; soma, body).

~ See genome.
Genetics The study of the patterns of inheritance of specific traits.
Genome All the ~ in the chromosomes of a particular organism; its size is generally given as its total number of base pairs.

In bacteria the ~ is dispersed in the cytosol and there is no internal membrane that delimits a nucleus.
6. Are there any bacteria made of more than one cell?
There are no pluricellular bacteria. All bacteria are unicellular prokaryotic.

What amount of ~ does the parasite have compared to a virus or a bacterium?

- Organisms whose ~ is not enclosed by a nucleus. The most common examples are bacteria.
- A nucleotide sequence in the operon system that is recognized by RNA polymerase as the site at which to begin transcription of RNA ...

Each time a virus's ~ is copied, there is potential for mutation. These "typos" in the copying process introduce variations in viral genes that may affect the virus's characteristics.

Genome: all the ~ of an organism.
Genotype: the inherited genetic constitution of an organism, see also phenotype.

Genome: All the ~ in the chromosomes of a particular organism. The human genome consists of three billion bases, organized in about 100,000 genes on 23 chromosomes.

The joining of two bacteria cells when ~ is transferred from one bacterium to another. Constitutive promoter. An unregulated promoter that allows for continual transcription of its associated gene. (See Promoter.) Contiguous (contig) map.

Crossovers -- the exchange of ~ between two paired chromosome during meiosis. Cornelia de Lange syndrome -- condition involving growth deficiency, significant developmental delay, anomalies of the extremities and a characteristic facial appearance.

Crossing overThe exchange of ~ between members of a pair of homologous chromosomes. For example, if a mating between a male (MS/Ns) and a female (MS/MS) results in an offspring who is MS/Ms, the recombinant child has occurred due to crossing over in the father.

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) Often referred to as the "blueprint of life," DNA is the ~ present in the nucleus of cells which is inherited half from each biological parent. An individual's DNA is unique except in cases of identical twins.

Altering the ~ of cells or organisms to enable them to make new substances or perform new functions. (ORNL)
Genetic engineering technology
See: recombinant DNA technology (ORNL)
Genetic illness ...

The nucleus is the most prominent organelle that contains majority of the ~s, and is essential for gene expression and regulation. About 10% to 20% of the total cellular proteins are predicted to be localized in the eukaryotic nucleus.

Since all cells come from existing cells, they must have some way of reproducing, whether that involves asexual (no recombination of ~) or sexual (recombination of ~).

In the lysogenic cycle the viruses can inject their ~ with one paramount difference: it forms something called a prophage. A prophage forms when the viral ~ integrates itself into the genome of the host cell without disturbing it.

Metagenomes - ~ recovered directly from environmental samples - are sequenced and compared to the databases in order to characterize the biological community of a given habitat.

This form of rearrangement can be either (i) balanced, when the translocation does not result in any loss or gain of ~ in the resultant gamete; or (ii) unbalanced, when there is a gain or loss of ~ in the resultant gamete.

And as a geneticist talking about deletion it means something is missing of the ~.

#3 - the ~ of the cell. humans have 46 chromosomes in each body cell (except eggs & sperm). this cell is eukaryotic because its ~ is inside a nucleus.
#4 - stacks of membranes (like pancakes)
#5 - an "empty" oval or circle ...

The common ancestor of all life probably used RNA as its ~. This ancestor gave rise to three major lineages of life. These are: the prokaryotes ("ordinary" bacteria), archaebacteria (thermophilic, methanogenic and halophilic bacteria) and eukaryotes.

The complexity of the relationship between kinetochores and the mitotic spindle reflects the requirement for accurate distribution of the ~ between dividing cells.

Crossing over is important for genetic variety as it allows the exchange of ~ between the maternal and paternal chromosomes. This forms chromatids with new combinations of alleles (recombination of linked genes).

Vegetative reproduction: (Also called vegetative propagation.) A reproductive process that is asexual and so does not involve a recombination of ~. It involves unspecialized plant parts which may become reproductive structures (such as roots, stems, or leaves).

Molecular biology is the study of molecular underpinnings of the process of replication, transcription and translation of the ~.

use double stranded DNA as their ~
use the same molecular systems, transcription and translation, to access the information stored in DNA
use a common genetic code, with few variations, to specify the sequence of polypeptides (proteins) ...

Living organisms pass their ~ from generation to generation, and the ~ we are talking about here is deoxyribonucleic acid, mercifully called DNA for short.

Crossing-over (recombination): The exchange of ~ between non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes (i.e., between maternal and paternal chromosomes) during meiosis.

Diploid: A full set of ~, consisting of paired chromosomes one chromosome from each parental set. All body cells are diploid.
Haploid: A single set of chromosomes (half the full set of ~) as in the egg and sperm (germ)cells of animal ...

Chromosome. A unit of ~ (chromatin) in which the genome is arranged. The mouse has 20 pairs of chromosomes, including 19 autosomal pairs and the X and Y chromosomes.
Chromosome map. A diagragm showing the locations and relative spacing of genes along a chromosome.

The next sugar is ribose, which plays an important role in holding together our ~. Next is deoxyribose, which is similar to ribose except it lacks an oxygen or hydroxyl group on one of its carbons, hence deoxyribose.

Crossing over the exchange of ~ between homologous chromosomes during meiosis.
Cultural evolution the changes which have taken place in human societies over the course of time.
Cyclic AMP a molecule that acts as a second messenger in many physiological reactions induced by hormones.

A single set of chromosomes (half the full set of ~), present in the egg and sperm cells of animals and in the egg and pollen cells of plants. Human beings have 23 chromosomes in their reproductive cells. Compare diploid.

2. The sequence of the ~ of viruses coincides with the sequence of certain sections of DNA or RNA of host cells, from here that viruses are considered to have been originated as waste-products derived from ancient cells that would be their same host cells today.

genetic engineering /jə-NET-ik/ Altering the ~ to allow it to perform new functions or make new products.
genetic marker /jə-NET-ik/ (1) a probe used to mark a gene, chromosome, or nucleus; (2) a phenotypic trait indicating the presence of a particular allele.

The entire complement of ~ in a chromosome set. The entire genetic complement of a prokaryote, virus, mitochondrion or chloroplast or the haploid nuclear genetic complement of a eukaryotic species.

A virus is little more than a strand of ~ (DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protein known as capsid. Viruses do not carry out any metabolic processes and need to invade a living host (animal, plant, bacterium or fungus).

[EXAM] Insert this gene into the ~ of a bacterium
Same restriction enzymes
Cut at same base sequence in bacterial DNA
Leaving sticky ends/hydrogen bonds break
Join/splice with ligase
Use of plasmid ...

[L. trans, across + formare, to shape]
Having artificially altered ~. A transgenic organism is one that has had its genotype altered by the introduction of a gene or DNA sequence into its genome by genetic manipulation; the introduced gene or DNA segment is called a transgene.

Genetic engineering: The manipulation of the ~ of an organism in order to achieve desirable characteristics.
Genus, Genera (pl.): A group of evolutionarily related species, sharing one or a number of characteristics.

the aggregate mass of dispersed ~ formed of DNA and protein and observed between periods of cell division in eukaryotic cells.
Covered in BIOL1020 Lab 6 Mitosis & Meiosis ...

genomic equivalence - concept that each cell in the body has the same ~ and therefore all the information necessary to create a complete organism. Animal cloning from a somatic nucleus 'proves' this idea.
gill arches - see pharyngeal arches.

nucleus the organelle within eukaryotic cells that contains the ~, DNA.
Okazaki fragments new sections of DNA that are placed along the lagging strand during DNA replication and are joined together by DNA ligase to produce a new DNA strand.

Chromosome a distinguishable unit of ~ in the nucleus of a dividing cell made of DNA and protein and carries genes
(chromo = color; soma = body) ...

Given good growing conditions, a bacterium grows slightly in size or length, a new cell wall grows through the center forming two daughter cells, each with the same ~ as the parent cell. If the environment is optimum, the two daughter cells may divide into four in 20 minutes. Oh my! ...

mutation. The abrupt appearance of a new, heritable characteristic as the result of a change in the ~ of one individual cell.
mycelium (plural: mycelia). The vegetative body of a fungus, consisting of a mass of slender filaments called hyphae.

The cell consists primarily of an outer plasma membrane, which separates it from the environment; the ~ (DNA), which encodes heritable information for the maintainance of life; and the cytoplasm, a heterogeneous assemblage of ions, molecules, and fluid.

For example, genome indicates the entire haploid complement of ~ in an organism, pproteome indicates the entire set of proteins expressed by an organism, etc. [Source: J. Lederberg and A. McCray (2001) The Scientist 15:8] ...

reproductive isolation-----occurs when formerly interbreeding organisms can no longer produce fertile offspring due to an incompatibility of their ~ or by differences in mating behavior.
gradualism-----idea that species originate through a gradual change of adaptations.

Crossing over - The breaking and rejoining of homologous (nonsister) chromatids during early meiotic prophase I, resulting in an exchange of ~.
Cytokinesis - Stage of cell division in which the cytoplasm is divided to form two daughter cells.

In biotechnology, one meaning of the term "clone" is any living organism (or the production of such an organism) with ~ that is identical to that of the parent organism from which it was created.

The result of meiosis is the production of four haploid cells from a diploid cell with each haploid cell contains half of the number of chromosomes and half of the ~s of a diploid cell. Meiosis has many similar mechanisms to mitosis.

chiasmata An X-shaped crossing formed by the crossing over of homologous chromosomes during meiosis when ~ is exchanged.

Segments of DNA in specific patterns are called genes. Your genes make you who you are. You will find the chromosomes and ~ in the nucleus of a cell. In prokaryotes, DNA floats in the cytoplasm in an area called the nucleoid.

The plasma membrane in the middle of the cell grows inward until it closes to separate the cell into two compartments, each with a full complement of ~. The cell then "fissions" at the center, forming two new daughter cells.

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Cells, Organ, DNA, Cell, Protein?

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