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Genetic material

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Genetic material
a gene, a part of a gene, a group of genes, or fragments of many genes, on a molecule of dna, a fragment of dna, a group of dna molecules, or fragments of many dna molecules.

Nucleic Acids and the Genetic Material Problem Set 1
Problem 7: Transformation
Frederick Griffith accidentally discovered transformation when attempting to develop a vaccine for pneumonia.

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Evidence that DNA is the Genetic Material
DNA and the Genetic Code ...

Genetic Material can Transform Bacteria - Frederick Griffith, 1931
When Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) bacteria are grown on a culture plate, some produce smooth shiny colonies (S) while others produce rough colonies (R).

Genetic material
Two different kinds of genetic material exist: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA).

Genetic Material
Viruses may carry DNA or RNA as their genetic material. DNA may be single- or double-stranded (ssDNA and dsDNA), and it may be circular or linear.

Genetic material
See genome.
Related Terms:
All the genetic material in the chromosomes of a particular organism; its size is generally given as its total number of base pairs.

Genetic material from the homologous chromosomes is randomly swapped
This creates four unique chromatids
Since each chromatid is unique, the overall genetic diversity of the gametes is greatly increased
Metaphase I ...

Genetic material
single circular double stranded DNA
complex chromosomes usually in pairs; each with a single double stranded DNA molecule and associated proteins contained in a nucleus ...

The genetic material is able to specify a large variety of proteins. The nature of the genetic material was unknown for a long time .

The genetic material of an organism consists of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

The genetic material in retroviruses is in the form of RNA molecules, while the genetic material of their hosts is in the form of DNA. When a retrovirus infects a host cell, it will introduce its RNA together with some enzymes into the cell.

The genetic material found in mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell. Not inherited in the same fashion as nucleic DNA.
See also: cell, DNA, genome, nucleus
Mitosis ...

The first genetic material was probably RNA, not DNA.
Thomas Cech and Sidney Altman found that RNA molecules not only play a central role in protein synthesis, but also are important catalysts in modern cells.

germ plasm Genetic material that may be preserved for future agricultural, commercial, and ecological values (plant seeds or parts or animal eggs, sperm, and embryos).
germ Embryo of a cereal grain.

transfer of genetic materials from one bacterial cell to another by a virus (phage)
Source: Noland, George B. 1983. General Biology, 11th Edition. St. Louis, MO. C. V. Mosby

Exchange of genetic material between maternal and paternal chromatids during meiosis to produce recombined chromosomes. (Figure 8-18) See also recombination.

Germ line: Genetic material transmitted from one generation to the next through the gametes. A germ line mutation exists in all cells of the offspring formed from that gamete.

All the genetic material in the chromosomes of a particular organism; its size is generally given as its total number of base pairs.
Related Terms:
Chromosome ...

Genetic material See genome.
Genetics The study of the patterns of inheritance of specific traits.
Genome All the genetic material in the chromosomes of a particular organism; its size is generally given as its total number of base pairs.

5. DNA: the genetic material which is contained in one or more chromosomes.
Despite the fact that all cells share the above characteristics, they can be remarkably different in size, shape and function.
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells ...

What amount of genetic material does the parasite have compared to a virus or a bacterium?

- Organisms whose genetic material is not enclosed by a nucleus. The most common examples are bacteria.
- A nucleotide sequence in the operon system that is recognized by RNA polymerase as the site at which to begin transcription of RNA ...

Each time a virus's genetic material is copied, there is potential for mutation. These "typos" in the copying process introduce variations in viral genes that may affect the virus's characteristics.

Genome: all the genetic material of an organism.
Genotype: the inherited genetic constitution of an organism, see also phenotype.

Genome: All the genetic material in the chromosomes of a particular organism. The human genome consists of three billion bases, organized in about 100,000 genes on 23 chromosomes.

The joining of two bacteria cells when genetic material is transferred from one bacterium to another. Constitutive promoter. An unregulated promoter that allows for continual transcription of its associated gene.

Crossovers -- the exchange of genetic material between two paired chromosome during meiosis.

Crossing overThe exchange of genetic material between members of a pair of homologous chromosomes.

Altering the genetic material of cells or organisms to enable them to make new substances or perform new functions. (ORNL)
Genetic engineering technology
See: recombinant DNA technology (ORNL)
Genetic illness ...

Since all cells come from existing cells, they must have some way of reproducing, whether that involves asexual (no recombination of genetic material) or sexual (recombination of genetic material).

Metagenomes - genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples - are sequenced and compared to the databases in order to characterize the biological community of a given habitat.

This form of rearrangement can be either (i) balanced, when the translocation does not result in any loss or gain of genetic material in the resultant gamete; or (ii) unbalanced, ...

And as a geneticist talking about deletion it means something is missing of the genetic material.

The common ancestor of all life probably used RNA as its genetic material. This ancestor gave rise to three major lineages of life.

The complexity of the relationship between kinetochores and the mitotic spindle reflects the requirement for accurate distribution of the genetic material between dividing cells.

Crossing over is important for genetic variety as it allows the exchange of genetic material between the maternal and paternal chromosomes. This forms chromatids with new combinations of alleles (recombination of linked genes).

Vegetative reproduction: (Also called vegetative propagation.) A reproductive process that is asexual and so does not involve a recombination of genetic material.

Molecular biology is the study of molecular underpinnings of the process of replication, transcription and translation of the genetic material.

use double stranded DNA as their genetic material
use the same molecular systems, transcription and translation, to access the information stored in DNA ...

Living organisms pass their genetic material from generation to generation, and the genetic material we are talking about here is deoxyribonucleic acid, mercifully called DNA for short.

Between 1884 (the year Mendel died) and 1888 details of mitosis and meiosis were reported, the cell nucleus was identified as the location of the genetic material, ...

A single set of chromosomes (half the full set of genetic material), present in the egg and sperm cells of animals and in the egg and pollen cells of plants. Human beings have 23 chromosomes in their reproductive cells. Compare diploid.

The sequence of the genetic material of viruses coincides with the sequence of certain sections of DNA or RNA of host cells, ...

The entire complement of genetic material in a chromosome set. The entire genetic complement of a prokaryote, virus, mitochondrion or chloroplast or the haploid nuclear genetic complement of a eukaryotic species.

A virus is little more than a strand of genetic material (DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protein known as capsid. Viruses do not carry out any metabolic processes and need to invade a living host (animal, plant, bacterium or fungus).

[EXAM] Insert this gene into the genetic material of a bacterium
Same restriction enzymes
Cut at same base sequence in bacterial DNA
Leaving sticky ends/hydrogen bonds break
Join/splice with ligase
Use of plasmid ...

Having artificially altered genetic material. A transgenic organism is one that has had its genotype altered by the introduction of a gene or DNA sequence into its genome by genetic manipulation; ...

Genetic engineering: The manipulation of the genetic material of an organism in order to achieve desirable characteristics.
Genus, Genera (pl.): A group of evolutionarily related species, sharing one or a number of characteristics.

somatic cell gene therapy /sō-MAT-ək, -ik/ n. The incorporation new genetic material into somatic cells for therapeutic purposes. The new genetic material cannot be passed to offspring. See also: gene therapy.

DNA a molecule that forms the genetic material of all living organisms.
DNA probe a single strand of DNA that is used to identify a particular gene.
DNA replication the process by which a DNA polymerase.

Diploid: A full set of genetic material, consisting of paired chromosomes one chromosome from each parental set. All body cells are diploid.

Chromosome a distinguishable unit of genetic material in the nucleus of a dividing cell made of DNA and protein and carries genes
(chromo = color; soma = body) ...

genomic equivalence - concept that each cell in the body has the same genetic material and therefore all the information necessary to create a complete organism. Animal cloning from a somatic nucleus 'proves' this idea.

DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid. The primary genetic material of a cell that makes up genes and chromosomes. See also genes, chromosome.
E ...

Given good growing conditions, a bacterium grows slightly in size or length, a new cell wall grows through the center forming two daughter cells, each with the same genetic material as the parent cell.

The cell consists primarily of an outer plasma membrane, which separates it from the environment; the genetic material (DNA), which encodes heritable information for the maintainance of life; and the cytoplasm, a heterogeneous assemblage of ions, ...

For example, genome indicates the entire haploid complement of genetic material in an organism, pproteome indicates the entire set of proteins expressed by an organism, etc. [Source: J. Lederberg and A. McCray (2001) The Scientist 15:8] ...

In biotechnology, one meaning of the term "clone" is any living organism (or the production of such an organism) with genetic material that is identical to that of the parent organism from which it was created.

The result of meiosis is the production of four haploid cells from a diploid cell with each haploid cell contains half of the number of chromosomes and half of the genetic materials of a diploid cell.

chiasmata An X-shaped crossing formed by the crossing over of homologous chromosomes during meiosis when genetic material is exchanged.

nucleus the organelle within eukaryotic cells that contains the genetic material, DNA.

mutation. The abrupt appearance of a new, heritable characteristic as the result of a change in the genetic material of one individual cell.

Segments of DNA in specific patterns are called genes. Your genes make you who you are. You will find the chromosomes and genetic material in the nucleus of a cell. In prokaryotes, DNA floats in the cytoplasm in an area called the nucleoid.

The plasma membrane in the middle of the cell grows inward until it closes to separate the cell into two compartments, each with a full complement of genetic material. The cell then "fissions" at the center, forming two new daughter cells.

See also: See also: Cells, Organ, DNA, Cell, Protein

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