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Biology  Hammerhead  Haploid Cell

Referring to an organism or cell having only one member of each pair of homologous chromosomes and hence only one copy (allele) of each gene or genetic locus. Gametes and bacterial cells are haploid. See also diploid.

the chromosome set with only one member of each chromosome pair
Source: Jenkins, John B. 1990. Human Genetics, 2nd Edition. New York: Harper & Row ...

For instance, a human germ cell (a sperm or an egg cell) is haploid, which means it contains only one of each of the 23 chromosomes of the human genome, or it only has half the diploid (2n) number of a human somatic cell (which is 46).

Doubled haploidy
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Haploid refers to a cell or an organism that has only a single set of chromosomes. This is to be contrasted with diploid. "Di" means two, of course. So most animal cells and plant cells are diploid.

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~ Cells that contain only one member of each homologous pair of chromosomes (~ number = n). At fertilization, two ~ gametes fuse to form a single cell with a diploid number of chromosomes.

Only one copy of each chromosome per cell. (Prokaryotes are ~, although more than one copy of a chromosome may be transiently present in the cell, depending on the rate of DNA replication and the growth rate.) ...

~ cell
(hap-loyd) [Gk. haploos, single + ploion, vessel]
A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium ...

~: A single set of chromosomes (half the full set of genetic material) as in the egg and sperm (germ)cells of animal
Modifier genes: Genes that affect the level of expression of another gene. Having no place on the Loci they attach themselves to other genes.

~ /HAP-loid/ adj. (1) in the case of a single-celled eukaryotic organism, having a single complete set of chromosomes; (2) in the case of a multicellular eukaryotic organism, having a single complete set of chromosomes in each somatic cell. See also: diploid.

~ (meaning simple in Greek) cells bear one copy of each chromosome.

~ - The condition of having one set of chromosomes per nucleus.
Interphase - Stage of the cell cycle between successive mitotic divisions; Its subdivisions are the G1(first gap), S (DNA synthesis) and G2 (second gap) phases.

~ -- Having a single set of chromosomes in the nucleus of each cell. Mosses, and many protists and fungi, are ~, as are some insects, bryophytes, and the gametes of all organisms. Contrast with diploid.

~: A single set of chromosomes (half the full set of genetic material), present in the egg and sperm cells o f animals and in the egg and pollen cells of plants. Human beings have 23 chromosomes in their sex cells. Compare to diploid.

~ gametophyte
The part of the life cycle of plants having ~ nuclei and giving rise to the sex cells that on fusing produce a diploid stage, usually the sporophyte.
Covered in BIOL1020 Lab 6 Mitosis & Meiosis ...

~. A cell or organism containing the set of chromosomes normally found in gametes.
Haplotype. A number of functionally related loci that are closely linked genetically. Alternative sates of such complexes are termed haplotypes.

~ cells containing one copy of each chromosome.
hemoglobin a red pigment that binds oxygen and carbon dioxide molecules and carries them through the bloodstream.
herbivores animals that eat plants.

~: The number of chromosomes in a sperm or egg cell, half the diploid number. NHGRI ...

~ having one set of chromosomes
(haplo = half; ploid = a set of chromosomes)
Hematoma local swelling‚ tumor‚ or bruise filled with blood
(hemo = blood; -oma = tumor) ...

~ phasing
For each colony, the identified markers were used for ~ phasing. The linkage of every two adjacent markers was inferred to determine the two chromosome haplotypes of the queen by comparing the SNP linkage information across all drones from the same colony.

~ number (n): The number of chromosomes in the gamete after meiosis. In humans, the ~ number is 23.

~ number - The number of unique chromosomes or homologous pairs in a cell. Half the diploid number.
Homologous pair - Refers to two similar chromosomes in a diploid cell. One chromosome is derived from the father gamete cell and the other from the mother gamete.

~ - gametophyte, produces gametes (then syngamy)
Diploid - sporophyte, produces spores (meiosis)
Primitively, the ~ state is the dominant stage
the diploid is only briefly seen ...

~ cells can live indefinitely in the ~ condition. However, if two cells of opposite mating types meet, they can fuse and enter the diploid phase of the cell cycle.
This is not as rare event as you might expect.

~ (n)-- one set chromosomes
Diploid (2n)-- two sets chromosomes
Most plant and animal adults are diploid (2n)
Eggs and sperm are ~ (n) ...

~ The reduced, or N, number of chromosomes, typical of gametes, as opposed to the diploid, or 2N, number found in somatic cells. In certain groups, mature organisms may have a ~ number of chromosomes.

~ a term referring to cells which contain only a single copy of each chromosome.
Hardy-weinberg principle states that the proportion of dominant and recessive alleles of a particular gene remains the same if certain conditions are met.

The ~ stage of a plant life cycle that produces gametes (by mitosis). It alternates with a diploid sporophyte generation. The ~ gamete-producing stage in the life cycle of plants; prominent and independent in some species but reduced or parasitic in others.

The ~ (1N) products of meiosis are known as gametes.
During meiosis, homologous chromosomes align with one another in a process known as synapsis. Each maternal chromosome aligns with its homologous paternal chromosome; this alignment is generally exact to the base pair.

The ~ nuclei of the sperm and ovum fuse in fertilization.
The ruptured follicle develops into the corpus luteum.
If the released oocyte is not fertilized, the corpus luteum degenerates.
In females, the secretion of hormones and the reproductive events they regulate are cyclic.

The human ~ cell is the gamete (egg cell and sperm cell). The human gamete has 22 autosomes and 1 allosome, i.e., 23 chromosomes. The diploid cell is the somatic cell and it has 44 autosomes and 2 allosomes, i.e., 46 chromosomes.

Gametophyte. ~ stage in the life cycle of a plant
Generation time. The time period from birth to average age of reproduction
Genetic drift. Changes in allele frequencies that can be ascribed to random effects ...

Meiosis produces ~ cells, which contain just one member of every chromosome pair characteristic of an organism.

Plants exhibit life cycles that involve alternating generations of diploid forms, which contain paired chromosome sets in their cell nuclei, and ~ forms, which only possess a single set. Generally these two forms of a plant are very dissimilar in appearance.

During the growth and extension of the tube, the generative nucleus, behind the tube nucleus, divides by mitosis to produce 2 male ~ gametes. The pollen tube enters the ovule through the micropyle and penetrates the embryo sac wall.

Gametes are ~ cells that carry reproductive functions produced through meiosis. Gametes carried by males are called sperms and gametes carried by females are called eggs. By joining during fertilization, gametes form a zygote, which is a diploid.
Transcript ...

The four ~ cells formed at the end of meiosis. The term was formerly used for the four chromatids making up a chromosome-pair at the first division of meiosis.
Related Terms:
~ ...

pronucleus - ~, gametic nucleus (from sperm or egg) in a fertilized egg, prior to fusion to form a zygote nucleus
prosencephalon - anteriormost division of the developing vertebrate brain (forebrain) that further subdivides into the telencephalon and the diencephalon.

See ~ cell. Directional cloning. DNA insert and vector molecules are digested with two different restriction enzymes to create noncomplementary sticky ends at either end of each restriction fragment.

not an exact multiple of the ~ number. For example, Downs syndrome (three #21 chromosomes) or Klinefelter syndrome (XXY males). AnticodonA sequence of three bases in tRNA that is complementary to a codon in mRNA. Enables tRNA to sequence amino acids in the order specified by mRNA.

Gametes are ~ (one copy of each autosome) (figure 1). Normal hepatocytes are tetraploid.

Gamete -- an ~ cell.gel electrophoresis the process by which nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) or proteins are separated by size according to movement of the charged molecules in an electrical field.

The purpose of meiosis is to produce ~ (1n) gametes. Another purpose is to recombine genes from the parents of the individual in whom meiosis is occurring. Both the reduction of the chromosome number from 2n to 1n and the recombination of genes is accomplished in an amazingly simple way.

We [began to work] with yeast cells because they were susceptible to genetics; because they would grow as ~ cells. We couldn't do the same kind of genetics with human cells. We were looking for the things in common between yeast and human cells.

In yeast (S. cerevisiae), which has a ~ genome size of 13 megabases, the primary insulator function of TFIIIC seems to be the demarcation of chromatin into distinct domains for blockage of heterochromatin silencing. In A.

Meiosis results in four rather than two daughter cells (gametes), each with a ~ set of each chromosome pair. In meiosis I the prophase is more complex than that of mitosis. Five different stages can be differentiated: leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene and diakinesis.

The megaspore mother cell undergoes meiosis to form 4 ~ (N) megaspores.
One of the 4 will continue to develop, while the other 3 dissolve.
The remaining megaspore grows and its nucleus will undergo 3 mitotic divisions, forming 1 large cell with 8 ~ nuclei.

cerevisiae cells undergo meiosis, four ~ spores are produced which are enclosed within a sac called an ascus. Using a micromanipulator, the 4 spores (the "tetrad") can be "dissected" out of the ascus and separated on an agar plate.

For example, for a ~ number of n, 2n is the number of possible outcomes. Humans have a ~ number of 23. 223 gives a value of over 8 million. This means that there are over 8 million possible combinations just through the radom orientation of the homologous chromosmes.

Alternation of generations: An alternation of sexual (~) and asexual (diploid) form of generations in a life cycle (example: aphids). The relative dominance of each phase is variable in each organism (mosses have a dominant ~ phase whereas angiosperms have a dominant diploid phase).

Fungal mycelia are typically ~. When mycelia of different mating types meet, they produce two multinucleate ball-shaped cells, which form a mating bridge. The result is that nuclei move from one mycelium into the other, forming a heterokaryon (meaning different nuclei).

Most cells are diploid. Cells with only one set (23 in a human) are called ~ cells. ~s are most often found in cells involved in sexual reproduction such as a sperm or an egg. ~ cells are created in cell division termed meiosis.

meiosis - the process that produces ~ reproductive cells in eukaryotes
Meiosis I - the portion of Meiosis when homologous chromosomes pair, cross over and then separate to opposite poles ...

GROWTH of daughter cells from mitotic divisions
Products of the growth phase divide by MEIOSIS producing ~ cells (46→23)
MATURATION of ~ daughter cells into gametes (eggs, sperm)
Heads are embedded in Sertoil cells ...

spermatozoon (plural: spermatozoa) [Gr. spermatos - seed, semen; Gr. zoon - animal]. A mature ~ male gamete. Synonym: sperm cell.
spermiogenesis The process of differentiation by which ~ spermatids are transformed into mature spermatozoa.

Meiotic product An individual ~ genome within an egg or sperm cell. Meiotic products are usually observed and analyzed within the context of diploid offspring.

Telophase I: CLEAVAGE FURROW forms beginning the process of CYTOKINESIS (cell division). Resulting daughter cells are ~ (1N).
Prophase II: Spindle formation begins and centrosomes begin moving toward poles.
Metaphase II: Tension from spindle fibers aligns chromosomes at the metaphase plate.

Ploidy: the number of complete sets of chromosomes in each cell in an organism. The ploidy series is ~ (1 copy), diploid (2 copies), triploid (3 copies), tetraploid (4 copies), pentaploid (5 copies), hexaploid (6 copies) etc. (see also polyploidy).

A chromosomal condition resulting from either an excess or deficit of a chromosome or chromosomes so that the chromosome number is not an exact multiple of the typical ~ set in the species.

Meiosis: the process of cell division in which a single cell produces four daughter cells each of which contains half of the number of chromosomes of the parent cell. For example, a single diploid spermatogonium (primordial germ cell) will divide meiotically to produce 4 ~ sperm cells.

However, those that do not are simply more like ~ organisms, such as bacteria, than they are like diploid organisms, such as human beings. Since (by certain measures) bacteria are among the most successful organisms on this planet, such GAs remain a good model of evolution.

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Chromosome, Diploid, Organ, Cell, Cells?

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