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Biology  Horizontal gene transfer  Hormones

(Science: endocrinology) a naturally occuring substance secreted by specialised cells that affects the metabolism or behaviour of other cells possessing functional receptors for the hormone.

General term for any extracellular substance that induces specific responses in target cells. Hormones coordinate the growth, differentiation, and metabolic activities of various cells, tissues, and organs in multicellular organisms.

Hormones of the Kidney, Skin, and Heart
1. Kidney
The human kidney secretes two hormones:
Erythropoietin (EPO)
Calcitriol (1,25[OH]2 Vitamin D3)
as well as the enzyme renin.
Erythropoietin (EPO) ...

a chemical substance that is secreted by one organ and produces specific effects elsewhere
Source: Noland, George B. 1983. General Biology, 11th Edition. St. Louis, MO. C. V. Mosby ...

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~s - Biology Encyclopedia forum
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~s, Plant » ...

A chemical messenger produced by plant and animal cells or glands and transported through body fluids, blood or sap, to target cells in which it induces a specific reaction. eg.

Nerves, ~s and homeostasis
6.5.1 State that the nervous system consists of the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nerves, and is composed of cells called neurons that can carry rapid electrical impulses.

Thyroid ~s function in development, bioenergetics, and homeostasis.

A ~ is a chemical that affects the ways in which an organism functions; it is produced in one part of the plant (or animal) body but affects many other parts of the body as well.

A ~ is any chemical produced in one part of the body that has a target elsewhere in the body. Plants have five classes of ~s. Animals, especially chordates, have a much larger number. ~s and enzymes serve as control chemicals in multicellular organisms.

A ~ is a chemical that's released by one cell or part of a body and it travels to some target cell, where a receptor protein will bind to that ~ and trigger off some change within the cell of the receiving cell. So the plant ~s fall into two basic categories.

~s are just one of the tools used to send messages to the various parts of the body. They are usually small molecules made by a gland. They are secreted following a suitable stimulus and transported in the blood.

Most of the molecules that enable signalling between the cells or tissues within an individual animal or plant are known as "~s." ~-initiated signal transduction takes the following steps: ...

~s exert many of their effects by forming transcription factors.
The complexes of ~s with their receptor represent one class of transcription factor. ~ "response elements", to which the complex binds, are promoter sites. Link to a discussion of these.

Secreted in response to presence of food in particular region of gut
~s travel in blood to glands / in glands, stimulate secretion of digestive juices
GASTRIN stimulates exocrine glands in stomach to release gastric juice ...

[Gk. hormaein, to excite]
One of many types of circulating chemical signals in all multicellular organisms that are formed in specialized cells, travel in body fluids, and coordinate the various parts of the organism by interacting with target cells.
host ...

~s /HORE-moans/ n. Circulating molecules that serve as signals for particular body processes to occur by interacting with target cells.
host (1) an organism supporting a parasite; (2) a bacterium harboring a plasmid or bacteriophage; (3) the recipient of a graft.

~s biochemical substances produced within plant or animal cells, or glands, that exert a particular effect.
hydrostatic skeleton a water-based skeleton present in many animals (such as the earthworm) that lack structures, such as bone, for muscles to pull against.

~ one of the body's messenger molecules which affects the functioning of some other area of the body
(hormon = to excite)
Humerus the bone in the upper arm
(humer = the shoulder) ...

What ~ directly controls the level of water in your body?
Study The Endocrine System .

~s also affect mature adults. Males and females have receptors for estrogens, progesterone, and androgens in various tissues.

~ regulation, nurturing behavior, pregnancy, sensory processes
Dopamine and another neurotransmitter called serotonin are released by just a small number of neurons in the brain.

peptide bond = the bond that holds amino acids together in protein molecules ...

~ 1. An organic molecule synthesized by a plant that exerts, even in low concentrations, profound regulation of growth and/or development. 2. Chemical products of ductless glands that are carried by the circulatory system and that influence various physiological processes in the body.

The ~ released by the area of the brain known as the hypothalamus beginning at the onset of sexual maturity in both males and females is:
follicle-stimulating ~ (FSH) ...

73. ~s
a. are enzymes
b. act on all cells in which they come in contact
74. Which of the following are both exocrine and endocrine glands?
a. pituitary
b. pancreas
c. testes
d. thyroid ...

- A plant ~ used by humans as a drug to treat skin infections
- The stage of growth in a plant or plant part from maturity to death, characterized by an accumulation of metabolic products, an increased respiratory rate, and a loss in dry weight.

Insulin a ~ involved in the control of blood glucose
Interferon a protein molecule that prevents the replication of viruses
Interspecific competition competition for resources that occurs between members of different species ...

An important ~ that lowers our blood sugar, insulin, is made of two polypeptide chains - the a-chain, and the b-chain. The a-chain consists of 21 amino acid residues, or amino acids, while the b-chain consists of 30 amino acids. These two peptides come together to form the ~, insulin.

The core tool used by the endocrine system is a compound called a ~. Your body uses dozens of ~s to regulate your growth, digestion, body temperature, and glucose metabolism (to name a few).

When we're talking about the endocrine system, ~s are the stuff of communication. These chemicals get released from an endocrine gland and act at a different part of the body.

second messenger systems: Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a ~ or neurotransmitter.

Robert-Seilaniantz A, Grant M, Jones JD: ~ crosstalk in plant disease and defense: more than just jasmonate-salicylate antagonism.
Meng X, Zhang S: MAPK cascades in plant disease resistance signaling. ...

Jenkins V, Shilling V, Fallowfield L, Howell A, Hutton S: Does ~ therapy for the treatment of breast cancer have a detrimental effect on memory and cognition? A pilot study. ...

A disease associated with the absence or reduced levels of insulin, a ~ essential for the transport of glucose to cells. Dideoxynucleotide (didN). A deoxynucleotide that lacks a 3' hydroxyl group, and is thus unable to form a 3'-5' phosphodiester bond necessary for chain elongation.

diseases 1946 Hermann Joseph Muller for the discovery that mutations can be induced by x-rays 1947 Carl Ferdinand Cori, Gerty Theresa, née Radnitz Cori, Bernardo Alberto Houssay for the discovery on how glycogen is converted to glucose in the body, and for the effects of hypophysis ~s on sugar ...

Due to investigating of the gastrointestinal ~s, a new science, gastrointestinal endocrinology, came in being. As the development of protein chemistry, A strenuous and extensive study has been made in this area of research.

Spontaneous oscillations of intracellular calcium and growth ~ (GH1) secretion. J. Biol. Chem. 263:9628-9685, 1988.
Yannelli, J.R., J.A. Sullivan, G.L. Mandell and V.H. Engelhard.

The secretion of thyroid ~ is regulated by the Thyroid stimulating ~ (TSH) produced by the anterior pituitary, which itself is regulated by Hypothalamus.
Deficiency of iodine leads to enlargement of the thyroid gland and hence swollen neck appears.

Response element: By definition, a "response element" is a portion of a gene which must be present in order for that gene to respond to some ~ or other stimulus. Response elements are binding sites for transcription factors.

Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by an inability to make or use the ~ insulin. Insulin is needed by cells to metabolize glucose, the body's main source of chemical energy.

These glands each produce one or more ~s. These ~s are released into the bloodstream via small tubes called ducts. Once in the bloodstream, these ~s effect every cell they come in contact with, telling them to do something.

competentia - meeting together, agreement, symmetry] The ability or state which renders a cell capable of responding to an inductor or ~ The dorsal ectoderm of amphibian embryos displays competence for neural induction. [P.D.

It is an essential part of cell membranes, and is used in the body to make bile, steroid ~s, and fat-soluble vitamins including Vitamin A, D, E and K. It plays an essential part in most body processes. Cholesterol is made by the liver, intestines, adrenal glands and other organs in the body.

steroids - hydrophobic molecule related to cholesterol. Many important ~s are steroids.
triglyceride - glycerol ester of fatty acids. The main constituent of fat droplets in animal
tissues (where fatty acids are saturated) and of vegetable oil (where fatty acids are mainly, unsaturated).

Important proteins for living beings are enzymes, ~s, Collagen, Chlorophyll and Hemoglobin.
Molecules are highly organized to build structural membranes (organelles), which possess specific functions, according to the materials with which they are formed.

The endocrine system is composed of the glands of the body that secrete ~s to be carried by the blood to essentially every cell. This communication system is slower than the nerve communication, but more pervasive.

chorionic somatomammotropin - aka placental lactogen, a ~ that promotes maternal breast development during pregnancy.
chromosomal puff - expanded region of a polytene chromosome indicative of active messenger RNA synthesis.

Regulatory proteins ensure that physiological processes are carried out in the correct manner inside living systems. Examples of regulatory proteins are ~s that control processes such as growth (growth ~) and metabolism (insulin and glucagon).

Examples are ~s, enzymes, and antibodies.
Related Terms:
Amino acid
Any of a class of 20 molecules that are combined to form proteins in living things. The sequence of amino acids in a protein and hence protein function are determined by the genetic code.

This internal secretion of the thyroid is supposed to contain a specific ~ which acts as a chemical stimulus to other tissues, increasing their metabolism.
12 ...

Physiology: carbohydrates, catalyst, enzyme, glycolysis, ~, lipid, metabolism, protein, respiration, Physiology ...

Golgi apparatus -- Eukaryotic organelle which package cell products, such as enzymes and ~s, and coordinate their transport to the outside of the cell.

interaction between a molecule (usually of an extracellular origin) and a protein on or within a target cell. One type of ligand-receptor interaction can be between steroid ~s and their cytoplasmic or nuclear receptors.

testis (plural, testes)
The male reproducitve organ, or gonad, in which sperm and reproductive ~s are produced.
Covered in BIOL1020 Lab 6 Mitosis & Meiosis ...

Others function as receptors, which bind information-providing molecules, such as ~s, and transmit corresponding signals based on the obtained information to the interior of the cell.

This groundbreaking scientific film documents futuristic research on plant sensory systems and the environmental significance of understanding what makes plants grow, through the impact of gravity, electrical signals and ~s on plants.

Fruit: Mature ovary with seeds inside. Its function is seed protection and dispersal. Fruits are a development of the ovary wall and sometimes the other flower parts as well. Its formation is induced by the plant ~ auxin, which is released by the maturing seeds.

of amino acids in a specific order; the order is determined by the base sequence of nucleotides in the gene coding for the protein. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the bodys cells, tissues, and organs, and each protein has unique functions. Examples are ~s, ...

The order is determined by the base sequence of nucleotides in the gene that codes for the protein. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's cells, tissues, and organs; and each protein has unique functions. Examples are ~s, enzymes, and antibodies.

Fertility in these lizards is increased when a female mounts another female and simulates copulation. These lizards evolved from sexual lizards whose ~s were aroused by sexual behavior.

Examples are ~s, enzymes, and antibodies.
Purine A nitrogen-containing, single-ring, basic compound that occurs in nucleic acids. The purines in DNA and RNA are adenine and guanine.
Pyrimidine A nitrogen-containing, double-ring, basic compound that occurs in nucleic acids.

Examples are ~s, enzymes, and antibodies. (ORNL)
Proteins expressed by a cell or organ at a particular time and under specific conditions. (ORNL)
Proteomics ...

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Cells, Organ, Protein, Hormones, Trans?

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