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Lipids are broadly defined as any fat-soluble (lipophilic), naturally-occurring molecules, such as fats, oils, waxes, cholesterol, steroids, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, phospholipids, and others.

Any organic molecule that is insoluble in water but is soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. Lipids contain covalently linked fatty acids and are found in fat droplets and, as phospholipids, in biomembranes.

fats and similar fatlike chemical compounds, that are insoluble in water but soluble in certain organic compounds
Source: Noland, George B. 1983. General Biology, 11th Edition. St. Louis, MO. C. V. Mosby ...

Photo by: KaYann
Lipids are uniquely biological molecules, and they are synthesized and used by organisms in a variety of important ways. Unlike proteins , polysaccharides , and nucleic acids, lipids are much smaller, water-insoluble molecules.

TAG: Lipid bilayer
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A fatty or waxy organic compound that is readily soluble in nonpolar solvent (e.g. ether) but not in polar solvent (e.g water). Its major biological functions involve energy storage, structural component of cell membrane, and cell signaling.

Fats and ~s are one of the four basic kinds of organic molecules. Unlike the other three however, rather than sharing a common Chemistry and structure, ...

~ binding to channels
How are the effects of anionic ~ on channel function to be understood? In some cases the interaction of ~ with a membrane protein is highly specific.

~AT: The ~ Thermodynamic Database Project was initiated to collect in one, central depository all information on ~ mesomorphic and polymorphic transitions and miscibility.

Biological Molecules and Enzymes
~s are made up of the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen but in different proportions to carbohydrates. The most common type of ~ is the triglyceride.

~s are a structurally heterogeneous group of compounds characterized by the presence of distinct hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains.
For example ' the "fatty acid" stearic acid has a "tail" of 17 carbon atoms and their associated hydrogens attached to a carboxylic acid (COOH) group.

~s are biological molecules that are insoluble in water, but are soluble in non-polar solvents, meaning that they are non-polar molecules. The ~s we're most familiar with are probably dietary fats.

~ Bilayer Structure
The ~ bilayer is a universal component of all cell membranes. Its role is critical because its structural components provide the barrier that marks the boundaries of a cell.

~s and Fat Review - Image Diversity: triglyceride molecule
4. What are phospho~s?

~s can be used for energy storage in the form of fat in humans and oil in plants.
~s can be used as heat insulation as fat under the skin reduces heat loss.
~s allow buoyancy as they are less dense than water and so animals can float in water.

~s of cell membranes include phospho~s composed of glycerol, fatty acids, phosphate, and a hydrophobic organic derivative such as choline or phosphoinositol. Cholesterol is a ~ component of cell membranes that regulates membrane fluidity and is a part of membrane signaling systems.

~s are macromolecules that are all insoluble in water. They include oils and fats, phospho~s, and steroids. Oils are found in plants, where they are used for long term energy storage. Fats are found in animals where they also provide long term energy storage, as well as insulation.

~s are the masters of energy storage, and some have important structural roles or serve as hormones, among other things. You may be most familiar with ~s as fat, but every one of the cells in your body has a membrane, or layer, of ~s that protects it from its environment.

~s One of the four classes of organic macromolecules. ~s function in the long-term storage of biochemical energy, insulation, structure and control. Examples of ~s include the fats, waxes, oils and steroids (e.g. testosterone, cholesterol).

~ and Polysaccharide Antigens
~ Antigens
~ antigens are presented to T cells by cell-surface molecules designated CD1 ("cluster of differentiation" 1).
Antigen-presenting cells express several different forms of CD1 at their surface.

(lih-pid) [Gk. lipos, fat]
One of a family of compounds, including fats, phospho~s, and steroids, that are insoluble in water.
lipoprotein ...

Triglycerides digested into monogylcerate + glycerol + fatty acids by lipase
Monoglycerides combine with bile to form micelles
5mm in diameter / forms an emulsion / contains fatty acids and glycerol ...

~-soluble hormones have intracellular receptors.
Evidence for intracellular receptors for steroid hormones came in the 1960s.

~s are technically not polymers, they are either a combination of glycerol and fatty acids or a steroid
~s are used in energy storage, membrane structure, insulation ...

~s are our 3rd group of organic compounds. Again, organic just means the compound contains carbon & hydrogen together. In the case of ~s, the compounds contain C, H, & O, and that's it. No other elements in ~ molecules. Nada, none, zippo, zilch. Just those 3. OK?

One of a family of compounds, including fats, phospho~s, and steroids, that are insoluble in water.
Covered in BIOL1020 Lab 2 Biological Molecules & BIOL1020 Lab 4 Cell Energetics I ...

~s /LIP-ədz/ Any of a wide variety of biological molecules, which are only sparingly soluble in water, including fats, fat-soluble vitamins, monoglycerides, diglycerides, phospho~s, waxes and sterols. ~s are generally soluble in nonpolar solvents such as ether or chloroform.

~s: Fats and Sterols
Important facts about Fats in your diet:
Unsaturated (mono, poly trans, omega), Saturated, Essential.

~ an organic molecule used to form cellular and organelle membranes, the sheaths surrounding nerve fibers, and certain hormones; includes fats as an energy source.

~ a group of hydrophobic molecules such as fats oils and waxes
(lipo = fat)
Lithosphere the rocky layers that make up the Earth's crust
(litho = stone; sphere = a ball) ...

One of a group of naturally occurring compounds, soluble in e.g. chloroform or alcohol, but insoluble in water ...

~ A fat, oil, or fatlike compound that usually has fatty acids in its molecular structure. An organic compound consisting mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by nonpolar covalent bonds. Examples include fats, waxes, phospho~s, and steroids that are insoluble in water.

~ any of a large group of organic substances which are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol
Lipoprotein a compound consisting of a ~ combined with a protein
Liver a large organ found in vertebrates that performs many important metabolic reactions ...

The ~ binding properties of apolipoprotein (apo) AIMilano, a molecular variant of human apolipoprotein AI, characterized by the Arg173----Cys substitution, was investigated by the use of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes.

glyco~ - membrane ~ molecule with a short carbohydrate chain attached to a hydrophobic tail.
glycolysis - the degradation of carbohydrates in a sequence of enzymatically catalyzed

Blood ~s
Cholesterol, Cholesterol total, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, Triglycerides ...

This is a ~ bilayer much like the cytoplasmic (plasma) membrane of other cells. There are numerous proteins moving within or upon this layer that are primarily responsible for transport of ions, nutrients and waste across the membrane.
Appendages: Bacteria may have the following appendages:
pili ...

Proteins and Amino acids
Nucleic acids
The bulk of biochemical investigation focuses on the properties of proteins, many of which are enzymes. For historical reasons, the biochemistry of metabolism has been one of the most extensively described aspect of the cell.

We also discussed the ~ bilayer. That ~ bilayer is not smooth around the entire cell. You will find thousands (millions?) of proteins throughout the cell membrane. Some are just on the inside of the cell and some on the outside. A special few cross the cell membrane.

7. What type of ~s are bad to eat?
Write a paragraph that tells if the objective was met and what was learned from the lab.

ionophore - ~ soluble substance that forms a channel or acts as a carrier in a ~ bilayer membrane to allow specific ions can move across the membrane. A23187 is an example of a calcium ionophore.
isogamous - having haploid gametes that are similar in size, structure and motility.

Within the phospho~ bilayer of the plasma membrane, many diverse proteins are embedded, while other proteins simply adhere to the surfaces of the bilayer.

Inositol ~. A membrane-anchored phospho~ that transduces hormonal signals by stimulating the release of any of several chemical messengers. (See Phospho~.) Insertion mutations.

~-Raft is a microdomain containing special ~s and proteins between the two layers of cell membranes and plays an important role in vesicles transport.

The neuron, like all cells, possesses a cell membrane that is mostly ~. Ions like sodium and potassium cannot cross the ~ membrane on their own.

Those proteins can be glycoproteins, meaning there's a sugar and a protein moiety, or they could be ~ proteins, meaning that there's a fat and a protein. And those proteins which stick outside of the plasma membrane will allow for one cell to interact with another cell.

Carbohydrates, proteins, ~s (fats) and nucleotides are major essential biomolecules.
Carbohydrates are also called as ?sugar? or ?saccharides?.
Generally speaking we use the term ?Carbs? for the carbohydrate content present in food.

Cell membranes also contain cholesterol in the phospho~ bilayer. In some membranes there are only a few cholesterol molecules, but in others there are as many cholesterols as phospho~s according to Audesirk & Audesirk.

Cytoplasm is a complex of organic and inorganic substances, mainly proteins, ~s, carbohydrates, minerals and water.

- Large, complex molecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, ~s and carbohydrates, that are produced only by living organisms. Biological molecules are often referred to as macromolecules or biopolymers.
Bioprocessing ...

Allelopathy: The influence exerted by a living plant on other plants nearby or microorganisms through production of chemicals. These include 1) carbohydrates and ~s, 2) alkaloids, 3) other nitrogen-containing compounds, 4) flavonoid phenolics and other phenolics, and 5) terpenoids.

Physiology: carbohydrates, catalyst, enzyme, glycolysis, hormone, ~, metabolism, protein, respiration, Physiology ...

Proteins may be modified in a wide variety of ways, including phosphorylation (addition or a phosphate group), adenylation (addition of an adenine group), glycosylation (addition of a sugar group), acylation (addition of a ~ group), proteolysis (removal of the initiator methionine, ...

A variant of magnetic resonance imaging that generates individual nuclear magnetic resonance spectra from a grid of subvolumes in an object. In addition to the more conventional water and ~ magnetic resonance images, ...

Refers to the domains in amphipathic membrane proteins where the hydrophobic regions traverse the ~ bilayers of the membranes, while the hydrophilic regions extend on either side of the membrane and interact with water.
Transposon ...

As strange as it may seam, the first cellular life forms on earth probably ate soup. Not Chicken Noodle Soup, but the same soup that they formed in. At that time, there were plenty of proteins, amino acids, and ~s to go around. The first cells were probably all consumers.

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Protein, Trans, Proteins, Cells, Cell?

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