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Lower epidermis

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Lower epidermis generally contains more stomates than upper epidermis
Palisade Mesophyll - tightly packed cells on the upper surface ...


Lower epidermis. Typically. most of the stomata (thousands per square centimeter) are located in the lower epidermis. Although most of the cells of the lower epidermis resemble those of the upper epidermis, each stoma is flanked by two sausage-shaped cells called guard cells.

Scattered about the lower epidermis are small openings called stomata. It is through these holes that carbon dioxide enters the leaf, & oxygen & water vapor exit.

Scattered throughout the epidermis (primarily the lower epidermis) are pairs of specialized cells with chloroplasts called guard cells . A pore, the stoma, lies between these cells, and allows gases to pass into and out of the leaf.

Dicotyledons usually have more stomata on the lower epidermis than the upper epidermis. As these leaves are held horizontally, upper epidermis is directly illuminated. Less number of stomata on the upper epidermis can then prevent water loss.

If the plant has floating leaves, there will be no stomata on the lower epidermis and they absorb gases directly from water through the cuticle. If it is a submerged leaf, no stomata will be present on either side.
Stoma in Greek (σ"όμα) means "mouth".
Contents ...

The ground tissue of the leaf, the mesophyll, is sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis.
It consists mainly of parenchyma cells with many chloroplasts and specialized for photosynthesis.
In many eudicots, a layer or more of columnar palisade mesophyll lies over spongy mesophyll.

plant leaf tissue located between the upper and the lower epidermis
Source: Noland, George B. 1983. General Biology, 11th Edition. St. Louis, MO. C. V. Mosby
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(mez-oh-fil) [Gk. mesos, middle + phyllon, leaf]
The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis.
messenger RNA (mRNA) ...

Spongy mesophyll - Made up of loosely packed cells. This tissue is found in the lower half of the leaf (lower surface) and has few chloroplasts. It provides gas exchange (CO2 uptake and O2release) and therefore needs to be close to the stomata found in the lower epidermis.

See also: See also: Epidermis, Plant, Cells, Leaf, Photosynthesis

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