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any substance that induces mutations
Source: Jenkins, John B. 1990. Human Genetics, 2nd Edition. New York: Harper & Row ...

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(Date:3/28/2011)... has discovered that descendants of "exploratory" butterflies that colonized ... The team, led by James Marden, a professor of ... post-doctoral scholar working at both Penn State and the ... bases for faster egg maturation, a higher rate of ...

A mutagen is a chemical or physical phenomenon, such as ionizing radiation, that promotes errors in DNA replication. Exposure to a mutagen can produce DNA mutations that cause or contribute to diseases such as cancer.
Narration Transcription ...

The production of either random or specific mutations in a piece of cloned DNA. Typically, the DNA will then be reintroduced into a cell or an organism to assess the results of the mutagenesis.

(myoot-uh-jen) [L. mutare, to change + genus, source or origin]
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.
~esis ...

~ An agent that causes mutation.
~icity The capacity of a chemical or physical agent to cause mutations.
mutant Affected by or having a mutation.

~esis. Intentional induction of gene mutations with a ~, such as a chemical (such as ENU) or radiation treatment of the germline.
Mutant. Any heritable feature that differs from the wild type. Used in context of mutant DNA, allele, gene, chromosome, cell, organism, or phenotype.

The generation of site-directed mutants using oligonucleotides with randomized codon positions (mjA'A818, V819, R820, T821, A822, Q823, S824, G825, Y826, M827, Q828, R829 and R830) was carried out as described in Nottebaum et al. [25].

A chemical or physical agent that induces mutations.
mutation ...

~s and Carcinogens. Chemicals that cause changes in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence, or mutations, are called ~s. If these changes prompt the cell to begin dividing, the cell may become cancerous. Substances that cause cancer are called carcinogens.

An agent that causes a permanent genetic change in a cell. Does not include changes occurring during normal genetic recombination.
~icity ...

~ic agents, or ~s, are physical, chemical or biological factors that can cause alteration in DNA molecules.

~ Any substance capable of causing a mutation.
~s Agents, such as chemicals or radiation, that damage or alter genetic material (DNA) in cells.
mutation pressure The constant resupplying of mutations to a gene pool due to a base mutation rate.

(D) ~
Which of the following is found in phloem tissue?
(A) Vessel elements ...

-- A ~ that reacts with C residues, producing a modified base (N4-hydroxyC) that pairs with A instead of G, and hence resulting in GC to AT transition mutations.

It has ~ic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic activity. It is formed by the enzymatic hydroxylation of aflatoxin b1 by aflatoxin b1 4-hydroxylase, a cytochrome p-450-dependent enzyme.
Pharmacological action: carcinogens, ~s, teratogens.

As X-ray ~esis commonly induces large deletions [26], we queried our sequence data for exome capture targets that are covered by sequence reads in the wildtype pool, but not in the mutant pool. As gene models and exome capture targets are given as coordinates on the WGS assembly of cv.

an active ~ in the Ames test;
causes an increase in the incidence of tumors in rats (that are forced to swallow water containing levels of MX far higher than those ever found in water supplies).

Directed ~esis
Two new papers examining the phenomena of directed mutations have recently appeared in the literature. I'll quickly review these experiments in the next post. This post is a short introduction to a few of the classic papers relevant to this issue.

While these ~ic chemicals resided in his bladder, they attacked genes of cells lining the walls of the bladder. They attacked those genes randomly and willy-nilly creating mutations here, there and everywhere.

Using in vitro ~esis, specific mutations are introduced into a cloned gene, altering or destroying its function.
When the mutated gene is returned to the cell, it may be possible to determine the function of the normal gene by examining the phenotype of the mutant.

fast neutrons ~ that typically produces small deletions. Cloning of mutated genes is facilitated by PCR and subtractive hybridization methods to detect deletions.

(See Probe.) ~. Any agent or process that can cause mutations. See Mutation. Mutation. An alteration in DNA structure or sequence of a gene. (See Point mutation.) Mutualism. See Symbiosis. Mycorrhizae. Fungi that form symbiotic relationships with roots of more developed plants.

They can guide ~esis experiments, or hypotheses about structure-function relationships.
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Following the dawn of molecular biology, it became clear that a major mechanism for variation within a population is the ~esis of DNA. An essential component to evolutionary theory is that during the cell cycle, DNA is copied fairly, but not entirely, faithfully.

Another common source is things called ~s which are chemicals or other environmental factors that can cause mistakes either doing DNA replication or damage to the DNA that later on when it gets repaired mistakes are made by the repairing enzymes for example ultra violet radiation can cause a ...

They are not ~s. ~s act randomly on all DNA and do not produce one specific genotype. Children who have been exposed to teratogens in utero will not pass their defect on to their children.

Chromosomal DNA accumulates mutations at a predictable rate as a result of errors in replication and environmental ~s, which are not corrected by DNA repair systems.

~s that affect DNA molecules cause increased phenotypic mutation.
The wavelengths of UV radiation which cause the most mutation are also those which pure DNA absorbs the strongest.

Genetic modifications to enzymes through protein engineering techniques such as site-directed ~esis and DNA shuffling have allowed scientists to enhance the catalytic properties of certain enzymes under specific industrial conditions such as extremes of temperature or pH, ...

A key feature of insertional ~esis for the identification of plasmids containing recombinant DNA is:
the production of nutritional auxotrophs.

2012-12-11 Analysis on Characterization of the Mutant Strain of Aeromonas Hydrophila by the Tn916 ~esis and the Insertion Sites of Transposon
2012-06-23 Regulation of Virulence-relevant Genes by Sub-inhibitory Concentrations of Antibiotics in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa ...

DNA is also constantly exposed to environmental hazards (UV, X-rays, carcinogens, ~s, etc.)
Enzyme systems constantly moniter DNA looking for altered DNA
Example - UV radiation causes two adjacent Thymines to form a Thymine dimer ...

Since mutations can be induced (by radiation or chemicals), Morgan and his coworkers were able to cause new alleles to form by subjecting fruit flies to ~s (agents of mutation, or mutation generators).

carcinogens - a substance that causes the initiation of tumor formation. Frequently a ~
connective tissues B a primary tissue; form and function vary extensively. Functions include support, storage, and protection.

DNA that has been created artificially. Basic recombinant DNA techniques include restriction digestion, ligation, site-directed ~esis, PCR, and cloning in plasmid or other vectors.
Other Resources
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580 x 106 base pairs of DNA, which encodes ~500 distinct genes. It has the smallest genome found for an organism that can be grown independently. Using ~esis studies, Lewis et al (2006) found that 382 of its genes are essential, of which ~28% had unknown functions.

Targeting, Gene A technology that allows an investigator to direct mutations to a specific locus in the mouse genome (see Chapter 6). Also called targeted ~esis.
See Targeted Mutation in the MGI Glossary.

See also: See also: What is the meaning of DNA, Trans, Mutation, Cell, Organ?

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