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Biology  Muscularis  Mutagenesis

any substance that induces mutations
Source: Jenkins, John B. 1990. Human Genetics, 2nd Edition. New York: Harper & Row ...

Mutagen: Any agent that produces a mutation or enhances the rate of mutation in an organism, for example, xrays, gamma rays, and certain chemicals.
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(Date:3/28/2011)... has discovered that descendants of "exploratory" butterflies that colonized ... The team, led by James Marden, a professor of ... post-doctoral scholar working at both Penn State and the ...

A mutagen is a chemical or physical phenomenon, such as ionizing radiation, that promotes errors in DNA replication. Exposure to a mutagen can produce DNA mutations that cause or contribute to diseases such as cancer.

The production of either random or specific mutations in a piece of cloned DNA. Typically, the DNA will then be reintroduced into a cell or an organism to assess the results of the mutagenesis.

(myoot-uh-jen) [L. mutare, to change + genus, source or origin]
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.
mutagenesis ...

mutagen An agent that causes mutation.
mutagenicity The capacity of a chemical or physical agent to cause mutations.
mutant Affected by or having a mutation.

Mutagen. Any agent or process that can cause mutations. See Mutation.
Mutation. An alteration in DNA structure or sequence of a gene. (See Point mutation.)
Mutualism. See Symbiosis.

The generation of site-directed mutants using oligonucleotides with randomized codon positions (mjA'A818, V819, R820, T821, A822, Q823, S824, G825, Y826, M827, Q828, R829 and R830) was carried out as described in Nottebaum et al. [25].

A chemical or physical agent that induces mutations.
mutation ...

Mutagens and Carcinogens. Chemicals that cause changes in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence, or mutations, are called mutagens. If these changes prompt the cell to begin dividing, the cell may become cancerous.

An agent that causes a permanent genetic change in a cell. Does not include changes occurring during normal genetic recombination.
Mutagenicity ...

mutagen Any substance capable of causing a mutation.
mutagens Agents, such as chemicals or radiation, that damage or alter genetic material (DNA) in cells.

(D) Mutagen
Which of the following is found in phloem tissue?
(A) Vessel elements ...

-- A mutagen that reacts with C residues, producing a modified base (N4-hydroxyC) that pairs with A instead of G, and hence resulting in GC to AT transition mutations.

It has mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic activity. It is formed by the enzymatic hydroxylation of aflatoxin b1 by aflatoxin b1 4-hydroxylase, a cytochrome p-450-dependent enzyme.
Pharmacological action: carcinogens, mutagens, teratogens.

an active mutagen in the Ames test;
causes an increase in the incidence of tumors in rats (that are forced to swallow water containing levels of MX far higher than those ever found in water supplies).

Directed mutagenesis
Two new papers examining the phenomena of directed mutations have recently appeared in the literature. I'll quickly review these experiments in the next post.

While these mutagenic chemicals resided in his bladder, they attacked genes of cells lining the walls of the bladder. They attacked those genes randomly and willy-nilly creating mutations here, there and everywhere.

Using in vitro mutagenesis, specific mutations are introduced into a cloned gene, altering or destroying its function.

fast neutrons Mutagen that typically produces small deletions. Cloning of mutated genes is facilitated by PCR and subtractive hybridization methods to detect deletions.

They can guide mutagenesis experiments, or hypotheses about structure-function relationships.

Following the dawn of molecular biology, it became clear that a major mechanism for variation within a population is the mutagenesis of DNA.

Another common source is things called mutagens which are chemicals or other environmental factors that can cause mistakes either doing DNA replication or damage to the DNA that later on when it gets repaired mistakes are made by the repairing ...

They are not mutagens. Mutagens act randomly on all DNA and do not produce one specific genotype. Children who have been exposed to teratogens in utero will not pass their defect on to their children.

Chromosomal DNA accumulates mutations at a predictable rate as a result of errors in replication and environmental mutagens, which are not corrected by DNA repair systems.

Mutagens that affect DNA molecules cause increased phenotypic mutation.
The wavelengths of UV radiation which cause the most mutation are also those which pure DNA absorbs the strongest.

Also called targeted mutagenesis.
A fragment of foreign DNA that has been incorporated into the genome through the manipulation of preimplantation embryos.
Pertaining to an animal or locus that contains a transgene.

Genetic modifications to enzymes through protein engineering techniques such as site-directed mutagenesis and DNA shuffling have allowed scientists to enhance the catalytic properties of certain enzymes under specific industrial conditions such as ...

A key feature of insertional mutagenesis for the identification of plasmids containing recombinant DNA is:
the production of nutritional auxotrophs.

DNA is also constantly exposed to environmental hazards (UV, X-rays, carcinogens, mutagens, etc.)
Enzyme systems constantly moniter DNA looking for altered DNA
Example - UV radiation causes two adjacent Thymines to form a Thymine dimer ...

Since mutations can be induced (by radiation or chemicals), Morgan and his coworkers were able to cause new alleles to form by subjecting fruit flies to mutagens (agents of mutation, or mutation generators).

carcinogens - a substance that causes the initiation of tumor formation. Frequently a mutagen
connective tissues B a primary tissue; form and function vary extensively. Functions include support, storage, and protection.

DNA that has been created artificially. Basic recombinant DNA techniques include restriction digestion, ligation, site-directed mutagenesis, PCR, and cloning in plasmid or other vectors.
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It has the smallest genome found for an organism that can be grown independently. Using mutagenesis studies, Lewis et al (2006) found that 382 of its genes are essential, of which ~28% had unknown functions.

Targeting, Gene A technology that allows an investigator to direct mutations to a specific locus in the mouse genome (see Chapter 6). Also called targeted mutagenesis.
See Targeted Mutation in the MGI Glossary.

Most carcinogens (cancer-generating factors) are also mutagens (mutation-generating factors). Oncogenes are genes resembling normal genes but in which something has gone wrong, resulting in a cancer.

See also: See also: DNA, Trans, Organ, Mutation, Cell

Biology  Muscularis  Mutagenesis

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