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Biology  N Terminus  Nanoarchaeum equitans

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced)

NADPH Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate.
NaF Sodium Fluoride.
Naegleria A genus of amoebas much used to study the genetics of undulipodium development; Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of amoebic meningoencephalitis.

NADPH oxidase (in both type of phagocytes)
myeloperoxidase (in neutrophils only)
ROS Activity
Strong oxidants like the various ROS can damage other molecules and the cell structures of which they are a part.

NADPH provides the reducing equivalents for biosynthetic reactions and for oxidation-reduction involved in protection against the toxicity of ROS (reactive oxygen species).
NADPH is also used for anabolic pathways, such as fatty acid synthesis, cholesterol synthesis and fatty acid chain elongation.

NADPH is the source of electrons for glucose biosynthesis.
ATP is the energy source for glucose biosynthesis.

~, an electron acceptor, provides reducing power via energized electrons to the Calvin cycle.
Water is split in the process, and O2 is released as a by-product.

~ acts as reductant of carbon dioxide, it delivers highly energetic hydrogens to precursor molecules during the glucose formation process. ATP is an energy source for the reactions of chemical stage.

The ~ and ATP generated in the light reactions enter the stroma, where they participate in the dark reactions. Energy and electrons provided by ATP and ~, respectively, are used to incorporate CO 2 into carbohydrate via a cyclic pathway called the Calvin-Benson cycle.

The ~ is the main reducing agent in cells, providing a source of energetic electrons to other reactions. This leaves chlorophyll with a deficit of electrons, which must be obtained from some other reducing agent.

ATP & ~2 are energy molecules. They will be used up during the dark reactions, as will the H+ ions.
the light reactions
Footnote to
Detail #4 ...

The electrons from the electron transport chain combine with these H+ ions and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate ions (NADP+) to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and a reduced unit of NADP+, called ~ (NADP plus an electron, or H).

The role of ~ in oxygen-producing photosynthesis is to ____. a) supply hydrogen to the carbohydrate; b) supply carbon to the carbohydrate; c) supply energy that can be used to form a carbohydrate; d) transfer oxygens from the third phosphate group to the carbohydrate molecule; e) convert ...

The power of the yeast genetic system was used to test the hypothesis that inactivating TPI blocks glycolysis and results in generation of ~ from the pentose phosphate pathway.

Using that energy they strip off electrons and put them onto a high energy electron carrier called ~ they also use the energy of those electrons to make a molecule called ADP an energy molecule that's going to be needed later on in the Calvin cycle.

If the light intensity is not a limiting factor, there will usually be a shortage of NADP+ as ~ accumulates within the stroma (see light independent reaction). NADP+ is needed for the normal flow of electrons in the thylakoid membranes as it is the final electron acceptor.

It appeared from noncyclic phtotphosphorylation that PS1 was responsible for ~ production, while in cyclic photophosphorylation it is important for ATP production.

The energy of the sun is captured by pigments found in photosynthetic organisms and the energy is captured in such a way as to produce ATP and reducing power in the form of electrons which are carried by the coenzyme, ~ (formed from the vitamin niacin).

However, if there is plenty of ~, something different happens.
The electron from PS I is passed to the electron carriers used in PS II. ATP is formed and the electrons return to PS I to fill the space. This makes PS II redundant as no electrons are needed from there to fill the space in PS I.

dark reaction - in photosynthesis, the ATP and ~ are used to drive a series of Acarbon-fixation@ reactions in which CO2 from the air is used to form sugar molecules.
dehydration - also called condensation; a typical biosynthetic reaction in which two monomers, A and B, are to be joined ...

AS: Alternative splicing; ~: Reduced form of NADP+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate); PQ: Plastoquinone; redox: reduced or oxidized.
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

The carbon-fixing reactions of the second stage of photosynthesis; energy stored in ATP and ~ by the light-dependent reactions is used to reduce carbon from carbon dioxide to simple sugars; light is not required for these reactions.
light microscope (LM) ...

light reaction that part of the photosynthetic process that, in the presence of light, captures energy to form ATP and ~2 to be used to synthesize complex organic molecules in the dark reaction
lignification Impregnated with lignin.

The ADP (adenosine diphosphate) is then sent back to be phosphorylated once again. There are also energy molecules that participate in the cellular respiration process. They are different from ATP. ~ and FADH2 are two electron carrier molecules that can also help in the cellular respiration ...

See also: See also: What is the meaning of ATP, Trans, Membrane, Molecule, Plant?

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