(Science: chemistry) A phosphate group on a larger molecule, where the phosphorus is single bonded to each of the four oxygens, and the other bond of one of the oxygens is attached to the rest of the molecule.
A functional group important in energy transfer.
phosphate group A chemical group composed of a central phosphorous bonded to three or four oxygens. The net charge on the group is negative. PICTURE ...
phosphate group a group derived from a molecule of phosphoric acid that connects the DNA molecules to one another.
phosphate ion a product of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) together with ADP.
Phosphate Group a phosphorus attached to four oxygens (PO4)
(phos = light; phor = bearé carry: the element phosphorus was so named because some forms "glow in the dark") ...
~ - One of three components of a nucleotide, comprised of a central phosphorous surrounded by four oxygens.
~s — not water — break the 1 -> 4 linkages
the ~ must then be removed so that glucose can leave the cell.
The liver and skeletal muscle are major depots of glycogen.
The ~ is bonded to the 5 carbon of the sugar (see Figure 2), and when nucleotides are joined to form RNA or DNA, the phosphate of one nucleotide is joined to the sugar of the next nucleotide at its 3 carbon, to form the sugar-phosphate backbone of the nucleic acid.
The ~ of one nucleotide binds to the pentose of the other nucleotide and so on to make the polynucleotide chain.
The ~ carries a negative charge.
Additional smaller groups may be attached to the ~ to form a variety of phospholipids.
The interaction of phospholipids with water is complex.
There is a ~ which has a negative charge, there is a pentose sugar which simply means it's got five carbons.
Contains three ~s connected to each other in sequence
The bonds an be broken by hydrolysis ...
The 5'-terminal ~.
The acceptor stem is a 7-bp stem made by the base pairing of the 5'-terminal nucleotide with the 3'-terminal nucleotide (which contains the CCA 3'-terminal group used to attach the amino acid). The acceptor stem may contain non-Watson-Crick base pairs.
One molecule of ATP has three ~s that are bound together. When a bond between phosphates is broken, energy is released. This energy can be used to power another chemical reaction.
the addition of a ~, such as PO3H2, to a compound
Source: Noland, George B. 1983. General Biology, 11th Edition. St. Louis, MO. C. V. Mosby
A building block of DNA and RNA, consisting of a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar, and a ~. Together, the nucleotides form codons, which when strung together form genes, which in turn link to form chromosomes.
The free 3' C normally carries a - OH group, and the 5' C a ~.
Annealing Formation of double-stranded molecules from two single strands of nucleic acid by base pairing of complementary sequence. Usually achieved incubation at a favourable temperature.
The nucleotides have 3 ~s and are called deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. Two of these ~s break off during the replication process to release energy.
Professor Pear: Well, remember that the backbone is made of ~s and sugars. Therefore, each strand will always have a phosphate at one end and a sugar at the other end.
Most of the lipids in the bilayer can be more precisely described as phospholipids, that is, lipids that feature a ~ at one end of each molecule.
These nucleotides are composed of a nitrogenous base (A = adenine, T = thymine, C = cytosine, G = guanine) attached to a sugar called deoxyribose and the sugar is attached to a ~ which is negatively charged. The double stranded DNA helix is like a twisted ladder.
They bind to the ~s of DNA by their amino termini. There are five major types of histone proteins. Two copies of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 bind to about 200 base pairs of DNA to form the repeating structure of chromatin (nucleosome) with H1 binding to the linker sequence.
If you remove just one of these ~s from the end, so that there are just two ~s, the molecule is much happier. This conversion from ATP to ADP is an extremely crucial reaction for the supplying of energy for life processes.
A nucleotide is made up of a nitrogenous base and a ~ covalently bonded to a five-carbon sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA). purines and pyrimidines.
Identifying the location of ~s.
Is DNA a right- or left-handed helix?
Grooves in the DNA double helix.
The deoxyribose sugar ring.
Is the deoxyribose ring flat or puckered?
Location of the sugar in the DNA double helix.
Are the two strands of DNA parallel or anti-parallel?
The ATP synthetase (or ATP synthase) of mitochondria and chloroplasts is an anabolic enzyme that harnesses the energy of a transmembrane proton gradient as an energy source for adding an inorganic ~ to a molecule of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to form a molecule of adenosine ...
Kinase: A kinase is in general an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a ~ from ATP to something else. In molecular biology, it has acquired the more specific verbal usage for the transfer onto DNA of a radiolabeled ~.
Atoms in the sugar component of a nucleotide provide the link between the base and the ~. The 1' carbon is attached to the 9 nitrogen of a purine, or the 1 nitrogen of a pyrimidine. The OH (hydroxyl) group on the 5' carbon is replaced by a bond to the ~ (ester bond).
Proteins may be modified in a wide variety of ways, including phosphorylation (addition or a ~), adenylation (addition of an adenine group), glycosylation (addition of a sugar group), acylation (addition of a lipid group), proteolysis (removal of the initiator methionine, ...
An enzyme that transfers the terminal (γ) ~ from ATP to a substrate. Protein kinases, which phosphorylate specific serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues in target proteins, play a critical role in regulating the activity of many cellular proteins. See also phosphatases.
Adenosine (ribose + adenine) triphosphate (3 ~s)
Produced by adding Pi to ADP → phosphorylation
Breaks down to ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and Pi (inorganic phosphate ion) by hydrolysis
ATP is useful as an immediate energy source/carrier because ...
A molecule consisting of adenosine (adenine plus a ribose sugar) and three ~s. The last two phosphates are joined by high energy bonds which provide energy used in chemical reactions such as respiration and glycolysis. In plants, ATP is formed in the chlorplasts during photosynthesis.
protein kinases - Enzyme that transfers the terminal ~ of ATP to a specific amino acid of a target protein
proteins - long linear polymers of amino acids joined head to tail by peptide bond between carboxylic acid group of one amino acid to the amino group of the next.
An RNA strand has a backbone made of alternating sugar (ribose) and ~s. Attached to each sugar is one of four bases--adenine (A), uracil (U), cytosine (C), or guanine (G). Different types of RNA exist in the cell: messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA).
phosphorylation The addition of a ~ to a molecule.
photic zone The surface layer where there is enough light for photosynthesis to occur. Also see epipelagic zone.
photoautotroph Organism that synthesizes organic matter using the energy of light.
- An enzyme that removes 5'-~s from the ends of DNA molecules, leaving 5'-hydoxyl groups
- One of two or more alternative forms of a gene which are usually recognizable by phenotypes ...
And so the addition of this chemical group, this ~, to the protein actually makes a negative charge, and that can affect the structure, and also actually regulate the activity or function of that protein.
The head of the phospholipid contains a ~, while the tail is typically a diglyceride. The cell membrane is a double layer of phospholipids, in which the tails are turned inwards and the heads are exposed to the intracellular and extracellular environments.
Kinase catalyzes the transfer of a ~ from ATP to DNA, protein or other substrates.
A complex of stains specific for the ~s of DNA. See also Giemsa banding.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ...
The model allows calculation of the concentrations of 19 different metabolites, the amount of high-energy ~s (P), and the NAD+/NADH and NADP+/NADPH ratios.
Adenosine Triphosphate ATP: Adenosine 5'- (tetrahydrogen triphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing three ~s esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter. MeSH ...
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the universal currency of energy. It is a small molecule with 3 ~s (P) attached to an adenosine molecule i.e. Adenosine-P-P-P
Electron / hydrogen carriers ...
Glycerol has three hydroxyl (-OH) groups. In the phosphoglycerol lipids, one of these groups is linked to a ~.
Phosphoglycerol is even more hydrophilic than glycerol.
molecular simulation ...
Ribonucleotide a compound built of a ribonucleoside in linkage with one, two or three ~s
Ribose a five-carbon sugar found in RNA
Ribosomal RNA an RNA molecule which is an integral component of a ribosome.
It would be more accurate to label the nucleotide deoxyadenosine monophosphate, as it includes the sugar deoxyribose and a ~ in addition to the nitrogenous base. However, the more familiar "adenine" label makes it easier for people to recognize it as one of the building blocks of DNA.
Five-prime (5') end: The end of a DNA or RNA strand with a free 5' ~ corresponding to the transcription initiation (see also three-prime end).
DNA: an abbreviation for 'deoxyribonucleic acid', the carrier molecule of genetic information. The chain of nucleotides is held together on a polymer backbone formed by a sugar (deoxyribose) and a ~ (see also base).
the process by adding water to the end of the chain instead of an amino acid. In order for the protein to become functional, it must be folded into its appropriate shape,and/ or have some amino acids removed, and/or have some of the polypeptides modified by adding sugars or ~s to them.
See also: What is the meaning of Molecule, Trans, Protein, Cell, Proteins?