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Phosphodiester Bond

Biology  Phosphate ion  Phospholipid

Phosphodiester Bonds
Oh, um, did I forget to tell you what a polynucleotide is? A polynucleotide is simply a long chain of nucleotides. 'Poly-' means 'many', so 'polynucleotide' literally means 'many nucleotides.' Now, you're probably wondering how these nucleotides are held together.

Phosphodiester bond
The covalent bond joining the 3' hydroxyl of the sugar moiety of one (deoxy)ribonucleotide to the 5' hydroxyl of the adjacent sugar.

phosphodiester bond In a nucleic acid polymer, one of the covalent bonds in which a phosphate links two consecutive nucleotides. PICTURE
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) One of the enzymes working in gluconeogenesis.

phosphodiester bond
A covalent bond in which two hydroxyl groups form ester linkages to the same phosphate group; joins adjacent nucleotides in DNA and RNA.
phosphoinositides ...

A phosphodiester bond forms between nucleotides to form nucleic acids.
Problem : Explain the significance of hydrogen bonds in DNA helices.

This sugar-phosphate-sugar bond is called a ~.
The process repeats so that a very long chain of nucleotides is made, a polynucleotide. Note that the bases protrude from the side of the chain.

A deoxynucleotide that lacks a 3' hydroxyl group, and is thus unable to form a 3'-5' ~ necessary for chain elongation. Dideoxynucleotides are used in DNA sequencing and the treatment of viral diseases. (See Nucleotide.) didN. See Dideoxynucleotide. Digest.

Endonuclease -- an enzyme that breaks the internal ~s in a DNA molecule. Ethics -- the study of fundamental principles which defines values and determines moral duty and obligation. Erythrocytes -- the hemoglobin-containing cell found in the blood of vertebrates.

Specifically, it involves creating a ~ bond between the 3' hydroxyl of one nucleotide and the 5' phosphate of another. This reaction is usually catalyzed by a DNA ligase enzyme. This enzyme will ligate DNA fragments having blunt or overhanging, complementary, 'sticky' ends.

"The mechanism of the metal ion promoted cleavage of RNA ~s involves a general acid catalysis by the metal aquo ion on the departure of the leaving group". Perkin transactions 2: 1619-1626.
^ a b Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L (2002).

The restriction enzymes usually cut the ~s of both strands in a staggered manner. The result being both ends have a single stranded area called the sticky ends. It is within this space that the new piece of DNA is added, attaching to the sticky ends. See the diagram below.

DNA polymerase proceeds along a single-stranded molecule of DNA, recruiting free dNTP's (deoxy-nucleotide-triphosphates) to hydrogen bond with their appropriate complementary dNTP on the single strand (A with T and G with C), and to form a covalent ~ with the previous ...

We currently do not understand how the trigger loop interacts with the catalytic site to promote ~ formation, ...

RNA enzymes can make ~s, suggesting that early RNA molecules could reproduce their genetic material.

An enzyme which cleaves ~s that link adjacent nucleotides in DNA and/or RNA. An exonuclease progressively cleaves from the end of the substrate molecule; an endonuclease cleaves at internal sites within the substrate molecule.
Related Terms:
Enzyme ...

- An enzyme that hydrolyzes internal ~s in a polynucleotide
- A sequence that enhances trasncription from the promoter of a eukaryotic gene. May be several thousand base-pairs away from the promoter.

in molecular biology, a hydrolytic cleavage of two opposing ~s in a double-stranded nucleic acid.
Compare: nick.
Please contribute to this project, if you have more information about this term feel free to edit this page ...

In this reaction, the 5' phosphate of the NTP is lost and a ~ [-C-O-P-O-C] is formed, but the 3' OH group remains, and can react with another NTP.
In this way, nucleotide polymers of unlimited length can be generated.

endonucleases - enzymes that hydrolyze internal ~s in a polynucleotide chain or nucleic acid molecule
glycogen - polysaccharide composed exclusively of glucose units used to store energy in animal cells ...

"p" indicates that "C" and "G" are connected by a ~.
CpG islands are often located around the promoters of housekeeping genes (which are essential for general cell functions) or other genes frequently expressed in a cell.
Related Terms:
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ...

phosphodiesterase - enzyme that cleaves a ~, for example, that which cleaves cAMP into AMP.
phosphorylate - to add phosphate; e.g., to a protein to alter its function.

Endonuclease: A nuclease which cuts a nucleic acid molecule by cleaving the ~s between two internal residues. Best known examples are restriction endonucleases.

They showed that DNA is made up of two complementary, antiparallel strands of the bases Guanine, Adenine, Thymine, and Cytosine, covalently linked through ~s.

The backbone of the double helix is made of up the sugar and phosphate groups, which are held together by ~s. The base pairing in DNA is important, because it allows the DNA molecule to copy itself during DNA replication.

Nucleic acid A polymeric molecule composed of nucleotide monomers joined by ~s. These link the 5' ribose carbon atom of one nucleotide residue with the 3' ribose carbon atom of the neighbouring nucleotide residue, through a phosphate group.

See also: See also: What is the meaning of DNA, Nucleotide, Protein, Molecule, Sequence?

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