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Biology  Rudolf Steiner  Run-off

1. The act or process of ruminating, or chewing the cud; the habit of chewing the cud. Rumination is given to animals to enable them at once to lay up a great store of food, and afterward to chew it. (Arbuthnot) ...

An animal, such as a cow or a sheep, with an elaborate, multicompartmentalized stomach specialized for an herbivorous diet.

ruminant /ROOM-ə-nənt/ A mammal that chews cud. MORE INFORMATION
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ruminant. Any of the hoofed mammals (including cattle, deer, sheep) that chew the cud.
runner. Stolon of a strawberry plant, on which a daughter plant may develop.
russeting. Thickening of the periderm on tubers of russet cultivars that occurs after vine senescence.

Ruminants have cotyledonary placenta, which is really many small placentas where the fetus' cotyledons interface with the dams' caruncle, forming a placentome.
Carnivores have a zonary placenta.
Perissodactyles have a micro-cotyledonary that grossly resembles diffuse placentas.

~ant Cud-chewing artiodactyl mammals with a complex four-chambered stomach.
~ant animals Cud-chewing animals, such as cattle, sheep, goats, and buffalo, with multichambered stomachs in which cellulose is digested with the aid of bacteria.

~ant any mammal that posseses a rumen (a chamber found at the interior of the gut)
Salinity a measure of the salt concentration of water.

The food ingested by cows and other ~ant animals passes first within two compartments of the digestive tube called the rumen and the reticulum. Within them the food suffers the action of digestive enzymes released by microorganisms that live there in mutualist ecological interaction.

Grassland based livestock production relies upon plant material such as shrubland, rangeland, and pastures for feeding ~ant animals. Outside nutrient inputs may be used, however manure is returned directly to the grassland as a major nutrient source.

The switching mainly occurred between the Bacteroides and ~ococcus community classes (Figure 5C). Although Bacteroides dominates in the Bacteroides community class, a subset of subjects had high relative abundance of ~ococcus.

It is also believed that dietary consumption of affected animals can cause prions to accumulate slowly, especially when cannibalism or similar practices allow the proteins to accumulate over more than one generation. Laws in developed countries now proscribe the use of rendered ~ant proteins in ...

These are the genes that distinguish the ~ants from other mammals, and may reflect special needs of ~ants, which retain the low-grade food they ingest, along with any associated pathogens, ...

Some animals, particularly ~ants and termites, can digest cellulose with the help of symbiotic micro-organisms - see methanogen.
Cellulose is processed to make cellophane and rayon, and more recently Modal, a textile derived from beechwood cellulose.

Ungulate: Any fourfooted, hoofed, grazing mammal (such as a ~ant, swine, camel, hippopotamus, horse, tapir, rhinoceros, elephant, or hyrax) that is adapted for running but is not necessarily related to other ungulates.
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The most elaborate adaptations for a herbivorous diet have evolved in the ~ants, which include deer, cattle, and sheep.
When the cow first chews and swallows a mouthful of grass, boluses enter the rumen and the reticulum.

Bacteria give yogurt its tangy flavor and sourdough bread its sour taste. They make it possible for ~ant animals (cows, sheep, goats) to digest plant cellulose and for some plants, (soybean, peas, alfalfa) to convert nitrogen to a more usable form.

But we can detect this loss of diversity because we actually have permanent plots. We've been counting and measuring everything in them year after year after year for 20-some years. Nobody else does this kind of thing. People aren't out there counting all the species in other ~ant stands.

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Organ, Trans, Animal, Human, Animals?

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