Mendel's first law; The separation of the members of a homologous pair of chromosomes into different gametes through the process of meiosis
Source: Jenkins, John B. 1990. Human Genetics, 2nd Edition. New York: Harper & Row ...
In genetics, the process that distributes an equal complement of chromosomes to daughter cells during mitosis and meiosis.
segregation of non-homologous centromeres during meiosis in a reciprocal translocation heterozygote such that unbalanced gametes with duplications and deficiencies are produced. See alternate segregation and adjacent-2 segregation.
The law of segregation is commonly known also as Mendel's First Law and this is the idea that every inheritable trait or gene as we now call them is controlled by a pair of factors or alleles and those pairs of alleles, ...
segregation Separation of replicated chromosomes to opposite sides of the cell. Distribution of alleles on chromosomes into gametes during meiosis.
~ /seg-rə-GAY-shən/ n. The normal biological process whereby the the chromatids of each chromosome pair are separated during meiosis and randomly distributed to the germ cells.
Online Biology Dictionary (SELF-)
self To self-fertilize or self-pollinate.
the separation of homologous chromosomes during anaphase 1 of meiosis, producing gametes containing only one allele of each gene.
~. Separation of pairs of alleles into different gametes during meisosis.
The normal biological process whereby the two pieces of a chromosome pair are separated during meiosis and randomly distributed to the germ cells.
law of ~
Mendel's first law, stating that allele pairs separate during gamete formation, and then randomly re-form pairs during the fusion of gametes at fertilization.
The separation of allelic differences from one another. ~ may occur at the first or second division of meiosis, or at the first mitosis after meiosis (postmeiotic ~). Leading to new gene combinations (=recombination).
Deviation from the expected Mendelian proportion of individuals in a given genotypic class within a segregating population.
This ~ of alleles corresponds to the distribution of homologous chromosomes to different gametes in meiosis.
If an organism has two identical alleles for a particular character, then that allele is present as a single copy in all gametes.
2.1 Law of ~
2.2 Law of Independent Assortment
Main article: History of genetics ...
principle of ~ One of Mendel's observations on the behavior of hereditary units during gamete formation. A modern interpretation of the principle of ~ is that genes exist in pairs, and during gamete formation, members of a pair of genes are distributed into separate gametes.
Because of the ~ of the X and Y chromosomes during male meiosis.
Because of the ~ of the X chromosomes during female meiosis.
The type of ~ produced when a recombinant DNA molecule contains an uncorrected mismatched base pair; at the next replication, normal base pairing occurs producing one mutant progeny and one wild-type progeny.
Mendel's law of ~ essentially has three parts.
Alternative versions of genes account for variations in inherited characters. This is the concept of alleles. Alleles are different versions of genes that impart the same characteristic.
Lin SY, Ikehashi H, Yanagihara S, Kawashima A: ~ distortion via male gametes in hybrids between Indica and Japonica or wide-compatibility varieties of rice (Oryza-sativa L). ...
Wei X, Samarabandu J, Devdhar RS, Siegel AJ, Acharya R, Berezney R: ~ of transcription and replication sites into higher order domains. ...
This statement is often called Mendel's rule of ~.
If an organism has two unlike factors (we call them alleles) for a characteristic, one may be expressed to the total exclusion of the other (dominant vs recessive).
The Testcross: A Test of Mendel's Hypothesis ...
Chromosome ~: The equal apportionment of daughter chromosomes to each of the two cells resulting from cell division is chromosome ~. When a chromosome fails to segregate properly, non-disjunction is said to have occurred.
Mendel formulated his Law of ~ after he had: A. studied F1 offspring -
B. studied F2 offspring - he crossed two hybrids (F1's) and got a second generation --- the F2.
C. produced mutations - Mendel knew NOTHING about mutations so this CAN'T be an answer
In order to ensure the inheritance of a complete ensemble of critical internal components by each daughter cell, the cell division process must provide for the ~ of organelles, such as mitochondria, the Golgi apparatus, and endoplasmic reticulum during mitosis.
The functions of microtubules in vesicle transport and chromosome ~ are dependent on molecular motors that bind to and move along microtubule tracks. These motors are divided into two families, kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein. Kinesin was the first microtubule motor to be identified.
19. Considering independent ~ of all factors, how many types of gametes does a VvXXWwYyzz individual produce? What is the formula to determinate such number?
The mentioned individual will produce eight different types of gametes (attention, gametes and not zygotes).
Genetic linkage: The situation referring to ~ of two or more genes together as a unit. Genetic linkage is thought to arise to accommodate genes that function best in each other's company, i.e., to provide a necessary cooperative effect that enhances survival.
Thus, the centromere is critical for the proper ~ of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis. In S. cerevisiae, the centromeres (CENs) are comprised of specific DNA sequences (CDEI, CDEII, and CDEIII), though in most eukaryotes this is not the case.
Chromosomes are structurally quite sophisticated, containing elements necessary for processes such as replication and ~. Each species has a characteristic set of chromosomes with respect to number and organization.
As we move on to consider chromosome replication, ~ (mitosis) and cell division (cytokinesis) in eukaryotes, it is important to consider the differences in chromosome structure between eukaryotes and prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea).
Mendel's Law of ~
Law of Independent Assortment
Chromosomes and Gender ...
Previous pages have described how genetic information is passed along from parents to offspring. Mendel summarised this in his first law, the principle of ~
Mendel's First Law ...
To explain the results of his experiments with peas, Gregor Mendel developed the Law of ~ and the Law of Independent Assortment. No genetics experiment has ever disproven Mendel's laws, and so his statements are still viewed as laws today.
DNA replicates before it segregates. The second thing you have to do is coordinate the activities of very large numbers of proteins. DNA replication involves thousands proteins probably. And chromosome ~ probably involves a thousand proteins.
In other words cold water makes baby female fish form, it doesn't kill male baby fish. The same embryo could be male or female depending on the temperature it is raised at (i.e. Mendelian ~ does not influence the sex ratio in this species.) ...
Linkage analysis — Gene mapping study design methods that test for the non-random ~ of disease phenotypes with discrete chromosomal segments. Identification of linked regions implies the existence of disease-causing mutations within or proximal to the linked region.
See also: What is the meaning of Chromosome, Organ, Cell, DNA, Protein?