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Stomata reveal past carbon dioxide levels
Because CO2 levels and stomatal index are inversely related, could fossil leaves tell us about past levels of CO2 in the atmosphere? Yes.

stomata the pores within leaves surrounded by guard cells that regulate the rate of gas exchange, which regulates the rate of photosynthesis. (Singular, stoma.) ...

Stomata and Gas Exchange
Stomata, as mentioned above, are the structures through which gas exchange occurs in leaves. Each stoma is surrounded by two guard cells, which can open and close depending on environmental conditions.

Gnathastomata: Jawed vertebrates, evolved following the jawless vertebrates (Class Agnatha). The oldest extant branch of jawed vertebrates is the cartilaginous fish.

[edit] Stomata as pathogenic pathways
Stomata are an obvious hole in the leaf by which, as was presumed for a while, pathogens can enter unchallenged. However, it has been recently shown that stomata do in fact sense the presence of some, if not all, pathogens.

stoma pl. ~
[Gk. mouth]
A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant.
strategy ...

stoma (pl ~) /STŌ-mə, stō-MAWT-ə/ n. Microscopic pores in the epidermis of plants; ~ allow gas exchange with the atmosphere.

~l opening and closing depends on changes in the turgor of the guard cells. When water flows into the guard cells by osmosis, their turgor increases and they expand. Due to the relatively inelastic inner wall, the guard cells bend and draw away from each other, so the pore opens.

~ (singular, stoma) are small specialized passages for water and gases present in the epidermis of the plants. As the plant needs more or less to lose water and heat the ~ respectively close or open preventing or allowing the passage of gases by diffusion.

~ open up during the day to let CO2 in and inadvertently let H2O escape ...

~ open when guard cells actively accumulate K+ into the vacuole.
This decreases water potential in guard cells, leading to an inflow of water by osmosis and increasing cell turgor.
~l closing results from an exodus of K+ from guard cells, leading to osmotic loss of water.

~ openings in the epidermis of a stem or leaf of a plant which permit gas exchange with the air.
Style the narrow stalk of the pistil, located above the ovary but below the stigma.
Suberin a waxy substance consisting of a long chains of fatty acids ...

The ~ leave clearly visible impressions in the nail varnish. A graticule slide allows for the counting of how many ~ (per unit area) are on the leaf surface, a characteristic of physiological significance.
See more about: Stoma ...

Mero~ The class of arthropods whose members are aquatic and possess book gills on the opisthosoma. Eurypterids (extinct) and horseshoe crabs.
merozoite A very small trophozoite at the stage just after cytokinesis has been completed in multiple fission of a protozoan.

The class Mero~ contains the extinct "sea scorpions" (or eurypterids) and the extant (living) horseshoe crabs. Eurypterids are extinct, but were important elements of faunas 200-500 million years ago during the Paleozoic Era. Some were huge, reaching a length of over 10 feet.

In leaves, dermal tissue contains specialized cells called guard cells that make up structures called ~ . ~ facilitate the exchange of gases in the leaf.

The ~ ( small holes) are located on the lower epidermis of the leaf. The ~ allow gases and water vapor into and out of the leaf. Each stoma is controlled by two bean shaped guard cells.

Microscopic pores known as ~ are the only breaches in the otherwise continuous layer of the leaf epidermis. Each individual pore, or stoma, is, in fact, a small opening between a pair of specialized cells known as guard cells.

Wang H, Ngwenyama N, Liu Y, Walker JC, Zhang S: ~l development and patterning are regulated by environmentally responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases in Arabidopsis. ...

stoma (plural: ~). Natural opening in a leaf surface that serves for gas exchange and water evaporation and has the ability to open and close in response to environmental conditions.

5) CAM physiology - ~ open during the evening/night instead of during the day (when the temperature is at its highest) as the transpiration rate will be lower during cooler hours.

In floating plants the ~ are present in the upper epidermis of the leaves for gaseous exchange, whereas ~ are absent in submerged plants.
The vascular bundles are reduced in Hydrophytes.

(Science: botany) the loss of water by evaporation in terrestrial plants, especially through the ~ (accompanied by a corresponding water uptake from the roots); ...

small opening such as found in leaves; plural, ~
Source: Noland, George B. 1983. General Biology, 11th Edition. St. Louis, MO. C. V. Mosby

Gas exchange in complex plants occurs through the ~ (open pores) on the underside of the leaves. Carbon dioxide enters and oxygen leaves via these pores.

In animals, the passage of watery vapour from a living body through a membrane. Different from sweat, or perspiration which is the secretion of a saline solution of of the body.
In plants, the passage of water through the ~ of leaves. Pronounce:
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Between their edges, at various points of their meeting, roundish dark spots are sometimes seen, which have been described as ~, though they are closed by intercellular substance.

It can cause the dormancy that's involved in helping plants slow down for things like winter. And they're involved in helping close the ~, the openings that plants use everyday to allow carbon dioxide in and oxygen out of the plant.

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Stoma, Plant, Trans, Cells, Organ?

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