A tearing injury to muscle. Usually causes some degree of bleeding within the muscle tissue (haematoma).
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To determine if individual sites in the genome were differentially methylated between the strains, we first compared individual sites between the parental B6 and DBA female mice, and between parental B6 and DBA male mice, using a binomial test .
A population of cultured cells, of plant or animal origin, that has a finite life span, in contrast to a cell line. (Figure 6-5) ...
An organism that is different from other organisms of the same species due to genetic differences.
Strains and media
E. coli K12 strain DL41 (Î"-, metA28) was obtained from the E. coli Genetic Stock Center, CGSC# 7177. Plasmid pCS16 (SC101 ori, a luxCDABE operon and a KanR marker) was obtained from M. Surette.
~ Refers to a group of mice that are bred within a closed colony in order to maintain certain defining characteristics. ~s can be inbred or non-inbred (see Chapter 3).
See Inbred ~ in the MGI Glossary.
F- ~: E.coli ~ behaving as recipients during conjugation (female). It lacks the F factor.
If a ~ of resistant bacteria shows up in a community, let's say it shows up in a school. What should the public health people be doing to control it?
Model of successive binary fission in E. coli
A ~ of E. coli is a sub-group within the species that has unique characteristics that distinguish it from other E. coli ~s.
Hybrid ~. Derived by mating 2 inbred ~s together.
Hybrid vigor. Heterosis.
Hypomorph. A mutant allele that does not eliminate the wild-type function of a gene and may give a less severe phenotype than a loss-of-function mutant.
Pure culture of microorganisms composed of the descendants of a single cell.
The subsequent generation following a mating or crossing of parents; offspring.
~ B — which supports the growth of all viruses thus giving the total number of viruses liberated.
~ K — on which only wild-type viruses can grow.
The recombination frequency between any pair of mutations is calculated as ...
Two ~s of Drosophila paulistorum developed hybrid sterility of male offspring between 1958 and 1963. Artificial selection induced strong intra-~ mating preferences.
(Test for speciation: sterile offspring and lack of interbreeding affinity.) ...
Flu ~s are named after their types of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface proteins , so they will be called, for example, H3N2 for type-3 hemagglutinin and type-2 neuraminidase.
Host ~ (bacterial): The bacterium used to harbor a plasmid. Typical host ~s include HB101 (general purpose E. coli ~), DH5a (ditto), JM101 and JM109 (suitable for growing M13 phages), XL1-Blue (general-purpose, good for blue/white lacZ screening).
form; ~; var.; variant ((biology) a group of organisms within a species that differ in trivial ways from similar groups)
race; subspecies ((biology) a taxonomic group that is a division of a species; usually arises as a consequence of geographical isolation within a species) ...
Inbred ~s have identical or nearly identical genetic information across individuals.
Vaccine ~ derived from SAD by escape mutant monoclonal antibody techniques (Street Alabama Gif) ...
The two ~s differed in the nature of the colonies they formed; in one case the colonies were smooth, in the other case, the colonies were rough.
He found that when cells of the smooth colony S ~ were injected into mice the mice quickly sickened and died.
coli ~ is F lac Z met bio. Cells from this ~ are mixed with an E. coli ~ that is lac Z met bio and carrying an F' episome with the plac O lac Z DNA sequence on the episome, and cultured for several hours.
congenic ~s /kÉ™n-JEN-ik/ Nearly identical ~s differing only with respect to a small chromosomal segment. Compare: coisogenic ~s.
congenital trait /kÉ™n-JEHN-É™-tÉ™l/ A trait present at birth, and not produced by environmental influences.
a homozygous ~ produced by inbreeding
Source: Jenkins, John B. 1990. Human Genetics, 2nd Edition. New York: Harper & Row
This places a ~ on the heart as the heart muscle receives less oxygen and carbon monoxide can damage directly, the linings of arteries.
1. The dead S ~ had been reanimated/resurrected.
2. The Live R had been transformed into Live S by some "transforming factor".
Further experiments led Griffith to conclude that number 2 was correct.
Why do some ~s of bacteria become resistant to antibiotics?
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Bacterial infection review done? Go to diseases main page and choose the next subject ...
biotype. A ~ of a species that has certain biological characters separating it from other individuals of that species.
blackarm. Bacterial blight lesions on stems.
blank. Nut with no kernel-consists of only the collapsed pellicle (skin).
Nearly identical ~s of an organism; they vary at only a single locus.
The study of human genetics by comparisons with model organisms such as mice, the fruit fly, and the bacterium E. coli.
Assembler Tool: A program to assemble sequences belonging to one locus from an isolate or ~, and compare them to reference sequence(s)
BALIBASE - A benchmark alignment database: BAliBASE 2.
members of our research group, picked out a ~ ofstreptomyces which secretes SA from 860 ~s of soil bacteriaand named as L-183. Song SX et al. explored primarily cultureconditions for L-183 and achieved a SA production amount of111mg/L.
A cross between an animal that is heterozygous for alleles obtained from two parental ~s and a second animal from one of those parental ~s. Also used to describe the breeding protocol of an outcross followed by a backcross.
See also: model organisms (ORNL) ...
Examples include transgenic models where specific genetic loci are either knocked-out (removed) or knocked-in (introduced) to enable study of the locus; recombinant inbred mouse ~s; recombinant viral transfection for synthesis of clonal protein.
Auxotrophic mutantA bacterial ~ which has a mutation in at least one of the enzymes in a biochemical pathway responsible for synthesising an essential substance, for example an amino acid.
Frederick Griffith: Experiments concerning the transformation of S and R ~ of a bacterium. First evidence of DNA. 2. Oswald Avery: Proved that DNA was the agent of transfer. 3. Erwin Chargaff: determined that the bases A-T and C-G are found in definite ratios.
A biotechnology company introduces a new ~ of tomato plant that produces a natural pesticide, making it resistant to the beetle. By switching to this new ~, you could avoid both the beetle and the chemical pesticides traditionally needed to fight it.
Several cyanobacterial ~s are also capable of diazotrophic growth. Genome sequencing has provided a large amount of information on the genetic basis of nitrogen metabolism and its control in different cyanobacteria.
Mutations in the antigenic structure of the influenza virus have resulted in a number of different influenza subtypes and ~s.
Vaccines therefore may consist of just the viral protein coat (some flu vaccines), or they may be heat-killed viruses (the Salk polio vaccine) which can no longer replicate or a vaccine may be an "attenuated" live virus ~ (Sabin polio vaccine).
One of the most dangerous ~s is called O157:H7.
Today, it is a global threat, with 75,000 cases annually in the United States alone.
In 2001, an international team of scientists sequenced the genome of O157:H7 and compared it with the genome of a harmless ~ of E. coli.
The ~s cultured by Dr Wainwright seemed to be resistant to the effects of UV - one quality required for survival in space...."
BBCNews, 19 June, 2003, Ancient organism challenges cell evolution Citat: "...
Ossification of muscular tissue as a result of repeated ~ or injury is not infrequent. It is oftenest found about the tendon of the Adductor longus and Vastus medialis in horsemen, or in the Pectoralis major and Deltoideus of soldiers.
A genetic interaction in which a combination of mutations in two or more genes of a single ~ results in a phenotype that is different in degree or nature from the phenotypes conferred by the individual mutations.
Found in the intestines of humans and animals, this bacterium is usually harmless, but some ~s can cause food poisoning and more serious illnesses. Most outbreaks involve contaminated beef that was not cooked thoroughly. The ~ known as O157:H7 is considered a potential biological weapon.
Although a neutrophil can kill this bead-like string of Streptococcus pyogenes, this particular ~ of bacteria expresses streptolysin-s on its surface which kills the white cell through necrosis, a death in which the cell swells and eventually bursts.
Constipation and ~ing in the toilet
Processed food diet high in sugar and refined carbohydrates like bread, cake, jams, breakfast cereal, sweets etc. Lack of fresh vegetables and fruit, unprocessed whole grain cereals and brown rice
Genetic - more common in women and runs in families ...
molecular mapping line ~s that are typically used for molecular mapping are generally recombinant inbred lines. RI lines are derived from a cross between parents with polymorphic genotypes.
A cross between a progeny from a previous cross and its parental ~, a cross of a heterozygote with its homozygous recessive parent, or the cross of a plant of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive.
Died. Autopsy revealed infestation of S ~
Apparently something from the heat-killed S changed the live R to make them virulent - this was called transformation
Griffith didn't know what it was that transformed the R ~ into the S ~, but he demonstrated that it could be done ...
Ecotype a genetic ~ of a population that is adapted to the unique local environmental conditions
(eco‚ oikus = house)
Edaphic Climax term used to describe a successional climax at a "lower" level due to existing environmental conditions
(edaph = the base‚ bottom‚ soil) ...
And this third phosphate it's going in to this region of great negativity so there is a lot of ~ on that bond and so very easily dink, ...
Larvacea. A group of planktonic tunicates that secrete a gelatinous house, used to ~ unsuitable particles (large particles are rejected). An inner filter apparatus of the house, the so-called food trap or particle-collecting apparatus, is used to retain food particles.
Pesticide resistance: A genetic change in response to selection by a pesticide, resulting in the development of ~s capable of surviving a dose lethal to most individuals in a normal population. Resistance may develop in insects, weeds, or pathogens.
stress Physical, chemical, or emotional factors that place a ~ on an animal. Plants also experience physiological stress under adverse environmental conditions.
stress-related disease See stress shock.
During extraction of plasmid DNA from the bacterial cell, one strand of the DNA becomes nicked. This relaxes the torsional ~ needed to maintain supercoiling, producing the familiar form of plasmid.
Insect resistant (plants): Tolerant of, or resistant to, insect attack (as in plants). individuals from ~s whose ancestors had not been exposed to the pesticide.
A nutritional mutant that is unable to synthesize and that cannot grow on media lacking certain essential molecules normally synthesized by wild-type ~s of the same species.
The vertebrate class of birds, characterized by feathers and other flight adaptations.
The common flu virus changes (evolves) enough every year that a new flu vaccine must be produced to protect the human population from repeat infection. In addition, a significant number of bacteria ~s have evolved antibiotic-resistance to the human-devised drugs that previously would have ...
If they eventually get someone sick, there is a chance that the antibiotics will not work again. You have incubated super bacteria! It's happening all the time in hospitals. We are killing off the easy diseases but some mutant ~s are surviving.
cell division, cell line, cell mapping, cellular component, cytogenetics, eukaryotes, FACS, flow sorting, host, hybridoma, Laser Capture Microdissection, multicellular, multipotent organelles, pluripotent, totipotent, cell culture, cell differentiation, cell fusion, cell patterning, cell ~, ...
This relaxes the torsional ~ needed to maintain supercoiling, producing the familiar form of plasmid. (See Plasmid.) NIH. See National Institutes of Health. Nitrocellulose. A membrane used to immobilize DNA, RNA, or protein, which can then be probed with a labeled sequence or antibody.
Tumor suppressor gene -- genes that normally function to re~ the growth of tumors; the best understood case is for hereditary retinoblastoma.
See also: What is the meaning of Trans, Organ, Biology, Human, Cells?