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A tearing injury to muscle. Usually causes some degree of bleeding within the muscle tissue (haematoma).
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cell strain
A population of cultured cells, of plant or animal origin, that has a finite life span, in contrast to a cell line. (Figure 6-5) ...

An organism that is different from other organisms of the same species due to genetic differences.

Strains and media
E. coli K12 strain DL41 ("-, metA28)[38] was obtained from the E. coli Genetic Stock Center, CGSC# 7177. Plasmid pCS16 (SC101 ori, a luxCDABE operon and a KanR marker) was obtained from M. Surette.

Strain Refers to a group of mice that are bred within a closed colony in order to maintain certain defining characteristics. Strains can be inbred or non-inbred (see Chapter 3).
See Inbred Strain in the MGI Glossary.

F- strain: E.coli strain behaving as recipients during conjugation (female). It lacks the F factor.

If a strain of resistant bacteria shows up in a community, let's say it shows up in a school. What should the public health people be doing to control it?

[edit] Strains
Model of successive binary fission in E. coli
A strain of E. coli is a sub-group within the species that has unique characteristics that distinguish it from other E. coli strains.

Strains of HIV (designated "R5") bind the coreceptor CCR5. These are the strains that are most infectious.
Strains of HIV (designated "X4") bind the coreceptor CXCR4.

Pure culture of microorganisms composed of the descendants of a single cell.
Related Terms:
The subsequent generation following a mating or crossing of parents; offspring.

Two strains of Drosophila paulistorum developed hybrid sterility of male offspring between 1958 and 1963. Artificial selection induced strong intra-strain mating preferences.

Flu strains are named after their types of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface proteins , so they will be called, for example, H3N2 for type-3 hemagglutinin and type-2 neuraminidase.

Host strain (bacterial): The bacterium used to harbor a plasmid. Typical host strains include HB101 (general purpose E. coli strain), DH5a (ditto), JM101 and JM109 (suitable for growing M13 phages), XL1-Blue (general-purpose, ...

form; strain; var.; variant ((biology) a group of organisms within a species that differ in trivial ways from similar groups) ...

Inbred strains have identical or nearly identical genetic information across individuals.

Vaccine strain derived from SAD by escape mutant monoclonal antibody techniques (Street Alabama Gif) ...

The two strains differed in the nature of the colonies they formed; in one case the colonies were smooth, in the other case, the colonies were rough.

A mutant strain of microorganism that will proliferate only when the medium is supplemented with some specific substance not required by wild-type organisms.

coli strain is F lac Z met bio. Cells from this strain are mixed with an E. coli strain that is lac Z met bio and carrying an F' episome with the plac O lac Z DNA sequence on the episome, and cultured for several hours.

congenic strains /kən-JEN-ik/ Nearly identical strains differing only with respect to a small chromosomal segment. Compare: coisogenic strains.

a homozygous strain produced by inbreeding
Source: Jenkins, John B. 1990. Human Genetics, 2nd Edition. New York: Harper & Row

This places a strain on the heart as the heart muscle receives less oxygen and carbon monoxide can damage directly, the linings of arteries.
Nicotine ...

1. The dead S strain had been reanimated/resurrected.
2. The Live R had been transformed into Live S by some "transforming factor".
Further experiments led Griffith to conclude that number 2 was correct.

biotype. A strain of a species that has certain biological characters separating it from other individuals of that species.
blackarm. Bacterial blight lesions on stems.

Nearly identical strains of an organism; they vary at only a single locus.
Comparative genomics
The study of human genetics by comparisons with model organisms such as mice, the fruit fly, and the bacterium E. coli.

Assembler Tool: A program to assemble sequences belonging to one locus from an isolate or strain, and compare them to reference sequence(s)
BALIBASE - A benchmark alignment database: BAliBASE 2.

A cross between an animal that is heterozygous for alleles obtained from two parental strains and a second animal from one of those parental strains. Also used to describe the breeding protocol of an outcross followed by a backcross.

Examples include transgenic models where specific genetic loci are either knocked-out (removed) or knocked-in (introduced) to enable study of the locus; recombinant inbred mouse strains; recombinant viral transfection for synthesis of clonal protein.

Auxotrophic mutantA bacterial strain which has a mutation in at least one of the enzymes in a biochemical pathway responsible for synthesising an essential substance, for example an amino acid.

A biotechnology company introduces a new strain of tomato plant that produces a natural pesticide, making it resistant to the beetle.

Several cyanobacterial strains are also capable of diazotrophic growth. Genome sequencing has provided a large amount of information on the genetic basis of nitrogen metabolism and its control in different cyanobacteria.

Mutations in the antigenic structure of the influenza virus have resulted in a number of different influenza subtypes and strains.

Vaccines therefore may consist of just the viral protein coat (some flu vaccines), or they may be heat-killed viruses (the Salk polio vaccine) which can no longer replicate or a vaccine may be an "attenuated" live virus strain (Sabin polio vaccine).

One of the most dangerous strains is called O157:H7.
Today, it is a global threat, with 75,000 cases annually in the United States alone.

The strains cultured by Dr Wainwright seemed to be resistant to the effects of UV - one quality required for survival in space...."
BBCNews, 19 June, 2003, Ancient organism challenges cell evolution Citat: "...

Ossification of muscular tissue as a result of repeated strain or injury is not infrequent. It is oftenest found about the tendon of the Adductor longus and Vastus medialis in horsemen, or in the Pectoralis major and Deltoideus of soldiers.

The term "true-breeding strain" is a code word for homozygous. Dominant alleles are those that show up in the next generation in crosses between two different "true-breeding strains".

Although a neutrophil can kill this bead-like string of Streptococcus pyogenes, this particular strain of bacteria expresses streptolysin-s on its surface which kills the white cell through necrosis, ...

Constipation and straining in the toilet
Processed food diet high in sugar and refined carbohydrates like bread, cake, jams, breakfast cereal, sweets etc. Lack of fresh vegetables and fruit, unprocessed whole grain cereals and brown rice ...

molecular mapping line Strains that are typically used for molecular mapping are generally recombinant inbred lines. RI lines are derived from a cross between parents with polymorphic genotypes.

A cross between a progeny from a previous cross and its parental strain, a cross of a heterozygote with its homozygous recessive parent, or the cross of a plant of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive.
Related Terms:
Heterozygote ...

And this third phosphate it's going in to this region of great negativity so there is a lot of strain on that bond and so very easily dink, ...

Griffith didn't know what it was that transformed the R strain into the S strain, but he demonstrated that it could be done
Oswarld Avery, Maclyn McCarty, and Colin MacLeod (1944) ...

He observed that heat-killed S strain bacteria injected into mice did not kill them. When he injected a mixture of heat-killed S and live R bacteria, the mice died. Moreover, he recovered living S bacteria from the carcasses.

A group of planktonic tunicates that secrete a gelatinous house, used to strain unsuitable particles (large particles are rejected).

Ecotype a genetic strain of a population that is adapted to the unique local environmental conditions
(eco oikus = house) ...

Pesticide resistance: A genetic change in response to selection by a pesticide, resulting in the development of strains capable of surviving a dose lethal to most individuals in a normal population.

stress Physical, chemical, or emotional factors that place a strain on an animal. Plants also experience physiological stress under adverse environmental conditions.
stress-related disease See stress shock.

Insect resistant (plants): Tolerant of, or resistant to, insect attack (as in plants). individuals from strains whose ancestors had not been exposed to the pesticide.

During extraction of plasmid DNA from the bacterial cell, one strand of the DNA becomes nicked. This relaxes the torsional strain needed to maintain supercoiling, producing the familiar form of plasmid. (See Plasmid.) ...

A nutritional mutant that is unable to synthesize and that cannot grow on media lacking certain essential molecules normally synthesized by wild-type strains of the same species.
Aves ...

You have incubated super bacteria! It's happening all the time in hospitals. We are killing off the easy diseases but some mutant strains are surviving. We might not be able to cure people next time a bad disease infects people.

Topoisomerase is the enzyme that helps to relieve this strain by breaking, untwisting and rejoining the DNA strands.

component, cytogenetics, eukaryotes, FACS, flow sorting, host, hybridoma, Laser Capture Microdissection, multicellular, multipotent organelles, pluripotent, totipotent, cell culture, cell differentiation, cell fusion, cell patterning, cell strain, ...

This relaxes the torsional strain needed to maintain supercoiling, producing the familiar form of plasmid. (See Plasmid.) NIH. See National Institutes of Health. Nitrocellulose.

Tumor suppressor gene -- genes that normally function to restrain the growth of tumors; the best understood case is for hereditary retinoblastoma.

See also: See also: Trans, Organ, Biology, Cells, Human

Biology  Storage material  Strand

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