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Substitution

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Substitution
Substitution is a type of mutation where one base pair is replaced by a different base pair. The term also refers to the replacement of one amino acid in a protein with a different amino acid.
Narration Transcription ...


base-pair substitution
a mutational event in which one base pair substitutes for another
Source: Jenkins, John B. 1990. Human Genetics, 2nd Edition. New York: Harper & Row ...

Substitution Editing: chemical alteration of individual nucleotides (the equivalent of point mutations).
These alterations are catalyzed by enzymes that recognize a specific target sequence of nucleotides (much like restriction enzymes): ...

substitution A type of mutation in which one base is substituted for another.
substrate feeders Animals such as earthworms or termites that eat the soil or wood through which they burrow.

substitution n. See: base-pair substitution.
substrate n. (1) an artificial medium on which a microorganism is grown; (2) the molecule on which an enzyme acts.
Online Biology Dictionary (SUCR-) ...

~ Replacement of one nucleotide sequence by another nucleotide or one amino acid in a protein by another amino acid. Also known as a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP).

~
In genetics, a type of mutation due to replacement of one nucleotide in a DNA sequence by another nucleotide or replacement of one amino acid in a protein by another amino acid.
See also: mutation
Suppressor gene ...

Base ~ mutation
A mutation resulting in the replacement of one base for a different base.
Batch culture
Growth of bacteria in a fixed volume of liquid medium in a closed vessel, with no additions or removals made during the period of incubation.

Base ~s Mutations
Base ~s can have a variety of effects. The silent mutation cited above is an example of a base ~, where the change in nucleotide base has no outward effect.

The ~ of one amino acid (valine) for the normal one (glutamic acid) at a particular position in the primary structure of hemoglobin, the protein that carries oxygen in red blood cells, can cause sickle-cell disease, an inherited blood disorder.

For ~ and indel assemblies, the mutation strength was the mutation rate per contig position, which was varied among 1-10'6, 1-10'5, 1-10'4, 1-10'3 and 1-10'2.

FREEZE ~
A procedure in which, at low temperature, the cellular water of, for example, cryofixed material is replaced by a series of organic solvents, including chemical fixative.

Amino acid ~ (e.g. D111E) - The first letter is the one letter code of the wild type amino acid, the number is the position of the amino acid from the N-terminus, and the second letter is the one letter code of the amino acid present in the mutation.

base-pair ~
A point mutation; the replacement of one nucleotide and its partner from the complementary DNA strand by another pair of nucleotides.
base-pairing principle ...

Nucleophilic ~ of haloalkanes [1]. Primary amines can also be synthesized by alkylaton of ammonia. Haloalkanes react with amines to give a corresponding alkyl-substituted amine, with the release of a halogen acid.

- A base-pair ~ mutation resulting in the replacement of one purine by another purine or of one pyrimidine by another pyrimidine
Translation
- The process of biosynthesis of a polypeptide chain using genetic instructions from the mRNA ...

1. Base-pair ~s: is the replacement of one nucleotide and its partner from the other DNA strand with another pair of nucleotides. Most of the time they are not serious.

~
The presence of a non-identical amino acid at a given position in an alignment. If the aligned residues have similar physico-chemical properties the ~ is said to be "conservative". (NCBI)
~ ...

Now one kind of ~ is something called a silent mutation and this is one reason why a lot of mutations seem relatively benign they don't have any real bad effects because of something called redundancy within the genetic code.

On the horizontal axis the amino acid ~s for each of these positions is indicated.

This is called a base ~ mutation as adenine (A) is replaced by thymine (T). This means that when the mutated gene is transcribed, a codon in the messenger RNA will be different. Instead of the normal codon GAG, the messenger RNA will contain the codon GUG.

The lipid binding properties of apolipoprotein (apo) AIMilano, a molecular variant of human apolipoprotein AI, characterized by the Arg173----Cys ~, was investigated by the use of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes.

dn/ds ratio: In molecular phylogenetic studies, the ratio of the number of non-synonymous nucleotide ~s to the number of synonymous nucleotide ~s. In the case of functionally important (or otherwise constrained) genes, ds is expected to exceed dn (dn/ds <1).

The most common types of altered activity are single base ~s, truncation of the outer bases in the recognition sequence, and single-strand nicking (10). Early studies with EcoR I by Polisky et al.

The OH group is not a good leaving group for nucleophilic ~ reactions, so neutral alcohols do not react in such reactions. However if the oxygen is first protonated to give R−OH2+, the leaving group (water) is much more stable, and nucleophilic ~ can take place.

The term proposed by Freese (1959) for a mutation caused by the ~ in DNA or RNA of one purine by the other, and similarly with the pyrimidines. (Cf. transversion.)
Related Terms:
Mutation ...

Example for a single nucleotide ~:
Rice cultivars with 18% or less amylose had the sequence AGTTATA at the putative leader intron 5' splice site, while all cultivars with ahigher proportion of amylose had AGGTATA.
See abstract of publication.
Related Terms:
DNA sequence ...

(Science: chemistry) Containing ~s or replacements; having been subjected to the process of ~, or having some of its parts replaced; as, alcohol is a substituted water; methyl amine is a substituted ammonia.

Hemodialysis is the artificial blood filtration made by specific machines in ~ of the kidneys. Hemodialysis may be necessary in patients suffering from diseases that cause renal failure, like diabetic renal complications, lupic renal complications and others.

The estimate is based on the number of allelic ~s per locus that have occurred during the separate evolution of two populations. Link to a lecture on Estimating Genetic Distance and GeneDist: Online Calculator of Genetic Distance. The software Arlequin v3.

Deletion, reading frame shifts
~, one base replaced by another
Duplication, repetition of part of the sequence
Addition, Addition extra base
Change in one or more nucleotide bases in the DNA
Change in the genotype (may be inherited) ...

This is called a synonymous mutation or silent mutation; non-synonymous ~s do cause a change in the amino acid. About half of all SNPs in genes are non-synonymous and therefore can account for diversity between individuals or populations.

point mutations A change in the structure of a gene that usually arises from the addition, deletion, or ~ of one or more nitrogenous bases.

The S segment nucleotide homology of the two strains were very high, but small discrepancy still existed: two distinct base pairs in 5'NCR (which were neglected because of its primers region), a transition in ORF (747nt, YU61 G, YU62 A), a ~ in 3'NCR (1552nt, YU61 A, YU62 G).

two species, but in general, very trivial differences are ignored on the twin grounds of simple practicality, and genetic similarity: if two population groups are so close that the distinction between them rests on an obscure and microscopic difference in morphology, or a single base ~ in ...

As a result of the mutation, in the mRNA, a codon GAA is replaced for a codon GUA. GAA codes for a glutamic acid, and GUA codes for a valine. These two amino acids differ greatly in their side chains, so the ~ has a dramatic affect on the overall structure of haemoglobin.

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Sequence, Protein, DNA, Trans, Mutation?

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