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Biology  Transition  Translocation

the process of converting the information contained in a sequence or RNA bases into a sequence of amino acids
Source: Jenkins, John B. 1990. Human Genetics, 2nd Edition. New York: Harper & Row ...

The ribosome-mediated production of a polypeptide whose amino acid sequence is specified by the nucleotide sequence in an mRNA.

Decoding of mRNA sequences to produce a protein.
Related ...

Translation is the second process of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression). In translation, Messenger RNA (mRNA) is decoded to produce a specific polypeptide according to the rules specified by the genetic code. Translation is necessarily preceded by transcription.

Translation of at least one mRNA in humans is repressed by a protein — aminoacyl tRNA synthetase.

~ of RNA into Proteins
This animation shows the ribosome and the different components used in ~.
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This is a search for trad in our database ...

~ is the process of translating the sequence of a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule to a sequence of amino acids during protein synthesis.

~ is the process in biology in which a ribosome uses the information stored in messenger RNA (mRNA) link together the sequence of amino acids which form proteins. ~ is preceded by transcription in which the mRNA is formed.

~ of Protein from RNA
Protein is translated from mRNA on a structure called the ribosome. Ribosomes consist of many subunits of protein and rRNA.

7.4.1 Explain that each tRNA molecule is recognized by a tRNA-activating enzyme that binds a specific amino acid to the tRNA, using ATP for energy.

~al and transcriptional contribution to ookinete formation ...

~: RNA >>> Proteins
There are only 9 genes in the HIV RNA. Those genes have the code necessary to produce structural proteins such as the viral envelope and core plus enzymes like reverse transcriptase, integrase, and a crucial enzyme called a protease.

~ begins with the binding of the small ribosomal subunit to a specific sequence on the mRNA chain.

The mechanism of trans-translation however is mysterious. Because the TLD of tmRNA has no anticodon, it is not clear how it can recognize and bind to the empty A site of a stalled ribosome (Figure 2).

The transcription of a DNA molecule into mRNA molecules, and the subsequent ~ of the mRNA molecules into polypeptides, within a laboratory mixture which contains ribosomes, enzymes, and all of the necessary components.

Main article: ~
During ~, the message of mRNA is decoded to make proteins. Initiation and elongation occur when the ribosome recognizes the starting codon on the mRNA strand and binds to it.

~? Plants under yellow & green light will carry out photosynthesis at a lower rate than the same type of plant under other colors (blue, violet, red). (This idea makes a nifty science project.)
#3 ...

The mRNA is now ready for ~, which is organised by the ribosomes, which now attach themselves to the mRNA.

~: mRNA to Protein via tRNA
~ is the synthesis of a polypeptide chain from amino acids by using codon sequences on mRNA
tRNA with anticodon carries amino acid to mRNA associated with ribosome
"Anticodon - codon" complementary base pairing occurs ...

Ribosome has three sites - P site, A site, E site
Initiation - Ribosome + mRNA + tRNA come together at AUG start codon ...

~ The synthesis of protein on a template of messenger RNA; consists of three steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. Making of a polypeptide sequence by translating the genetic code of an mRNA molecule associated with a ribosome. PICTURE ...

The assembly of amino acids into polypeptides using the genetic information encoded in the molecules of mRNA.

[L. trans, across + latus, that which is carried]
The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of "language" from nucleotides to amino acids.
translocation ...

~ Synthesis of protein on an mRNA template.
translocation Transfer of a segment of one chromosome to another chromosome.
transpiration Loss of water from the leaves of a plant; creates an osmotic gradient that draws nutrient-laden water up from the roots. DIAGRAM ...

~. The process by which the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide is synthesized on a ribosome according to the nucleotide sequence of an mRNA molecule.
Translocation. Interchange of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes.

~ - process whereby mRNA code is used by the ribosome to synthesize a polypeptide chain (protein) from amino acid precursors.
transposable element - see transposon ...

~ the process by which the genetic code is transferred to an amino acid sequence in a protein.
tricuspid valve a valve that passes blood from the right atrium into the right ventricle.

The process in which the genetic code carried by mRNA directs the synthesis of proteins from amino acids.
See also: transcription
Translocation ...

The ~ will be completed with funding from:
the NSF Recognition Award for the Integration of Research & Education
O Projeto Biológico
Portuguese ~ of The Biology Project. ...

In ~
Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries information about a protein sequence to the ribosomes, the protein synthesis factories in the cell. It is coded so that every three nucleotides (a codon) correspond to one amino acid.

And now.~:
The process of using an RNA template to create a polypeptide or protein made of amino acids.

What is ~?
Study Protein Synthesis Made Easy .
What is meant by cleavage period?
Read Embryonic Development .

- The process of biosynthesis of a polypeptide chain using genetic instructions from the mRNA
Transposon ...

~ of specific mRNAs can be blocked by regulatory proteins that bind to specific sequences or structures within the 5' leader region of mRNA.
This prevents attachment of ribosomes.
mRNAs may be stored in egg cells without poly-A tails of sufficient size to allow ~ initiation.

~ the transport of substances from one part of a plant to another
Transpiration the loss of water vapour from a plant
Tricuspid valve the valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle in the heart of a mammal ...

Nick ~
Method used to introduce 32p into a DNA probe so that the probe can be detected.
Related Terms:
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ...

Back ~ Use of the experimentally determined amino acid sequence of part or all of a polypeptide to determine the theoretical nucleic acid base sequence(s) which could code for it. This is normally done using a computer programme.
BacteriophageBacterial virus.

The synthesis of polypeptides (~) is catalyzed by ribosomes.
Cells are surrounded by lipid-protein membranes.
Imported energy is used to maintain cellular structure and to build new cells.
Cells share many common chemical reactions (metabolism).

Possible post-~al modifications of histone molecules include deacetylation of lysine, methylation of lysine and arginine, ubiquitination or phosphorylation.

Programmed Cell Death
Genetics is the study of heredity or inheritance. Genetics helps to explain how traits are passed from parents to their young. Understanding certain genetic concepts can be difficult for beginners.

A complementary RNA sequence that binds to a naturally occurring (sense) mRNA molecule, thus blocking its ~. (See RNA.) Asexual reproduction. Nonsexual means of reproduction which can include grafting and budding. Autosome. A chromosome that is not involved in sex de- termination.

5' - end -- the end of a polynucleotide with a free (or phosphorylated or capped) 5' - hydroxyl group; transcription/~ begins at this end.

RibosomesComplexes of rRNA and protein in cytoplasm that serve as platforms for ~ for mRNA into protein. RNARibonucleic acid. Nucleic acids that are formed using DNA as a template. Similar to DNA except has ribose in place of deoxyribose and uracil in place of thymine.

Lamarck, the founder of Evolution: his life and work with ~s of his writings on organic evolution. New York: Longmans, Green.. ISBN 0405125623.
^ The Complete Works of Darwin Online - Biography. darwin-online.org.uk. Retrieved on 2006-12-15
Dobzhansky 1973 ...

See also: ~ (ORNL)
Transcription factor
A protein that binds to regulatory regions and helps control gene expression. (ORNL)
The full complement of activated genes, mRNAs, or transcripts in a particular tissue at a particular time (ORNL)
Transfection ...

A common theme underlying circadian rhythmicity is that oscillations of clock gene transcription are the consequence of intracellular transcriptional-~al feedback loops consisting of series of clock genes and proteins.

Compare ~.
Transfer RNA (tRNA) A class of RNA having structures with triplet nucleotide sequences that are complementary to the triplet nucleotide coding sequences of mRNA.

~ of the percentage into an actual number results in an average of just three skeletal differences out of the total 338 bones in the body. Amazingly, 58 percent of these differences occurred in the skull alone. "This is a lot less variation than I'd expected," said Novak..." ...

While determining the polypeptide sequence resulting from gene ~ is straightforward, determining the actual three-dimensional (3D) structure requires some sophisticated experimental techniques.

The codon, AUG, signals the "start" of ~ and three different codons signal the termination of ~ (UAA, UGA, UAG).

cell migration: A broad term that we use to refer to those processes that involve the ~ of cells from one location to another.

Geneva bible, a ~ of the bible into english, made and published by english refugees in geneva (geneva, 1560; london, 1576).

Register in which ~ machinery reads the genetic triplicate code.
Related Terms:
The process in which the genetic code carried by mRNA directs the synthesis of proteins from amino acids. The mRNA base sequence is translated into sequence of amino acids in a peptide or protein.

The initiation of ~ of most eukaryotic mRNAs involves recognition of the cap followed by either the first downstream AUG or by a 5' proximal AUG with a consensus sequence surrounding it (like the bacterial Shine-Dalgarno or the viral Kozak sequence).

amino acid sequence Amino acid sequences for proteins from the start of ~ to the terminator. Unless specifically noted, the sequences contain all amino acids present before any post ~al modification occurs (e.g. cleavage of signal peptides).

A BLAST program that compares the six-frame ~s of a nucleotide sequence to the six-frame ~s of a nucleotide sequence dataset. The user must enter a NUCLEOTIDE sequence and select one of the NUCLEOTIDE datasets (i.e., genoSc or GenBank) for the search.
TC number ...

For more information about Transcription and ~, visit Molecules of Inheritance.
Could You Really Do This?
Yes! Researchers at McGill University engineered a type of cell much like this one, where GFP level provided a readout of gene activity.

Effects of additions and deletions: If the length of the new or deleted segment is not a multiple of three the ~ will be garbled after the point at which the insertion/deletion occurred because the frame reading is now misaligned. This is known as a frameshift mutation.

8 - The Transcription and ~ Process
Go to The Transcription and ~ Process
9 - Genetic Mutations ...

RNA Ribonucleic acid; nucleic acid used for transcription and ~ of the genetic code found on DNA molecules.

Cell Biology - Proteins: protein, protein synthesis, ribosome, exocytosis, mitochondrion, amino acid, ATP, enzyme, transcription, ~, ribosomal RNA, RNA, RNA polymerase, transfer RNA, messenger RNA, mitochondrial DNA ...

The proviral genome can subsequently be transcribed into viral RNA that functions as mRNA for ~ into HIV proteins and as genomes for the subsequent generation of the virus.

poly-A tail - addition made to RNA polymerase II's transcript; aids in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus, affects the stability of at least some mRNAs in the cytoplasm, and seems to serve as a recognition signal for the ribosome that is require for efficient ~ of mRNA ...

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Trans, Protein, Biology, Sequence, DNA?

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