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Biology  Translation  Transmembrane protein

transfer of soluble materials through the sieve tubes of the phloem of vascular plants; the exchange of parts of chromosomes
Source: Noland, George B. 1983. General Biology, 11th Edition. St. Louis, MO. C. V. Mosby ...

Translocation - Biology Encyclopedia forum
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Translocation is a type of chromosomal abnormality in which a chromosome breaks and a portion of it reattaches to a different chromosome. Chromosomal translocations can be detected by analyzing karyotypes of the affected cells.
Narration Transcription ...

Translocation events monitored by RelE cleavage of the A-site codon ...

A chromosomal configuration in which (usually) the ends of two non- homologous chromosomes have become exchanged. A translocation in which part of one chromosome is exchanged with a part of a separate non-homologous chromosome.

~s are the result of moving a section of the genetic material (chromosome) of the cell and attaching it to another chromosome. Again, since generally there is no loss of genetic information the effect on the cell may be minimal, but due to ...

Once the peptide bond has formed, the first tRNA detaches and travels into the cytoplasm to pick up another amino acid.
The ribosome shifts along the mRNA by exactly one codon, so that the second codon now occupies the P site and the third the A site.

Karyotype analysis can also reveal ~s between chromosomes. A number of these cause cancer, for example ...

~ - whole system ratchets down so that the tRNA formerly in the A site is now in the P site
The cycle repeats itself until as STOP codon is reached
Termination - when a stop codon is encountered ...

~ 1) The movement of a segment from one chromosome to another without altering the number of chromosomes. 2) the movement of þuids through the phloem from one part of a plant to another, ...

[L. trans, across + locare, to put or place]
(1) An aberration in chromosome structure resulting from an error in meiosis or from mutagens; attachment of a chromosomal fragment to a nonhomologous chromosome.

~ Transfer of a segment of one chromosome to another chromosome.
transpiration Loss of water from the leaves of a plant; creates an osmotic gradient that draws nutrient-laden water up from the roots. DIAGRAM
transport protein See carrier protein.

~ Pertaining to a novel chromosome formed by breakage and reunion of DNA molecules into a non- wild-type configuration (see Chapter 5).
See ~ in the MGI Glossary.

~. Interchange of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes.
Transposable element. A DNA sequence capable of moving (transposing ) from one location to another in the genome.

~ - The process in which the ribosome moves three nucleotides down an mRNA strand in the 3' direction. Process is catalyzed by the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.
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A mutation in which a large segment of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome.
See also: mutation
Transposable element ...

Cyclase ~ assay
The vector containing RalF-CyaA [29] was transformed into L. micdadei, L. hackeliae and L. fallonii and strain Paris wild type and its isogenic ?dotA::Km mutant were used as positive and negative controls.

Transfer of a segment of a chromosome to a non homologous chromosome. ~s are usually reciprocal. (Cf. Interchange.)
Related Terms:
The term was proposed by Waldeyer (1888) for the individual threads within a cell nucleus (gk. chroma, colour; soma, body).

~ 9;11 associated with AML
In the event of procedures which allowed easy enumeration of chromosomes, discoveries were quickly made related to aberrant chromosomes or chromosome number.

~, I hate some of the names that scientists come up with, rather than just saying a it moved they say ~ see a and b have been swapped over from the long chromosome to the shorter chromosome and mno has been swapped over to the big one.

~ Moving animals from one location to another, for instance to determine whether and how soon they shift their activity cycle to match the photoperiod and/or other features in their new location.

During ~, the ribosome moves the tRNA with the attached polypeptide from the A site to the P site.

A Robertsonian ~ in either partner may cause recurrent abortions or complete infertility.
Female infertility
Factors relating to female infertility are: ...

~ Chromosomal rearrangement in which a piece of one chromosome is transferred to another one.
Triploidy The presence of a full extra set of chromosomes. Often lethal.
Trisomy 3 copies of a particular chromosome (normally we have only 2.)
tRNA See transfer RNA.

Also chromosomal ~ may become important. In this mechanism, ...

(See Dominant gene, Fusion gene, Gene amplification, Gene expression, Gene flow, Gene pool, Gene splicing, Gene ~, Recessive gene, Regulatory gene.) Gene amplification. The presence of multiple genes.

Down syndrome -- a type of mental deficiency due to trisomy (three copies) of autosome 21, a ~ of 21 or mosaicism. Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy -- the most common and severe form of muscular dystrophy; transmitted as an X-linked trait. X-linked recessive.

Structural genetic variation — A term that encompasses variety of large-scale genomic aberrations, including segmental rearrangements, ~s or inversions, and DNA copy-number variants (CNVs). Large rearrangements or deletions can be visualized through karyotyping.

Findings indicate that higher boron efficiency cultivars rest in its higher ~transformation capability and higher utilization efficiency, whereas lower boron efficiency cultivars doesn't have above mentioned advantageous nutrition characteristics.

(fluorescence in situ hybridization): One of the more modern methods in cytogenetics, which uses fluorescence-labelled chromosome-specific DNA, probes to detect ~s, inversions, deletions, amplifications and other structural or numerical chromosomal abnormalities.

An antibiotic that inhibits protein synthesis by binding to the 30s ribosomal subunit and preventing ~. KanR is usually due to a cytoplasmic aminoglycoside phosphotransferase that inactivates kanamycin by covalently phosphorylating it.

7.4.3 State that translation consists of initiation, elongation, ~ and termination.
Translation consists of initiation, elongation, ~ and termination.
7.4.4 State that translation occurs in a 5? → 3? direction.

Another example is the ~ of vesicles containing neurotransmitters by microtubules to the tips of nerve cell axons.

Protein Synthesis - Image Diversity: ribosomal ~
20. How many of the same proteins are made at the same time by each ribosome in the translation of one mRNA molecule? How does consecutive protein production occur in translation?

The second tRNA has now moved into place and the now free tRNA has been released. ~ can take place: it is the transfer of the newly formed dipeptide into the peptidyl site (the first one, also called donor site) (Diagram 4) when the ribosome shifts 3 nucleotides.

Sometimes, a chromosome may break and then be rejoined incorrectly to another chromosome - this is known as a chromosomal ~.
Such chromosomal rearrangements complicate synapsis and can lead to a failure of meiosis, and hence sterility.

Non disjunction and changes in number (pre and post zygotic); polyploidy, aneuploidy, spontaneous abortions (SABs), advanced maternal age (AMA)
Changes in structure
Inherited and de novo structural changes; ~s, deletions and inversions, isochromosomes; normal variants ...

Trisomy 21, exception leading to Downs syndrome
Sex chromosomes
Turner syndrome: monosomy X
Klinefelter syndrome: XXY
~ and deletion: transfer of a piece of one chromosome to another or loss of fragment of a chromosome.

In the Colleague information section, Research_interest refers to the broad areas of study the colleague is pursuing. Examples might be: protein ~, DNA replication, histones or cytoskeleton.
Reserved gene name
Gene names that are soon to be published can be reserved with SGD.

One of a family of motor proteins with a globular head region and coiled-coil tail region that has actin-stimulated ATPase activity; drives movement along actin filaments during muscle contraction and cytokinesis (myosin II) and mediates vesicle ~ (myosins I and V). (Figure 18-20) ...

ends (telomeres) to form the human chromosome 2 (Williams, not dated), and other species that have large chromosomal differences can still interbreed (Nevo et al. 1994). DNA aligns according to local sequence rather than large-scale chromosome structure, and this is why inversions and ~ ...

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Trans, Cell, Cells, Protein, Biology?

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