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Upper epidermis

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Upper epidermis - Consists of a single layer of cells found on the upper surface of the leaf. It is covered by a thick waxy cuticle. The main function of the upper epidermis is water conservation.

Upper epidermis. This is a single layer of cells containing few or no chloroplasts. The cells are quite transparent and permit most of the light that strikes them to pass through to the underlying cells.

The upper epidermis (colored purple) & the lower epidermis (colored red) basically are protective layers. They are coated with a waxy surface, the cuticle, which further protects the leaf & prevents excess water loss.

palisade The vertical photosynthetic cells below the upper epidermis in leaf tissue; these cells are a specialized parenchyma.
palisade parenchyma Parenchyma cells in the leaf mesophyll characterized by uniform rows of tightly packed cells with many chloroplasts beneath the upper epidermis.

Dicotyledons usually have more stomata on the lower epidermis than the upper epidermis. As these leaves are held horizontally, upper epidermis is directly illuminated. Less number of stomata on the upper epidermis can then prevent water loss.

Palisade wall a type of cell found just beneath the ~ pf a leaf
Palmitoylation a process by which a protein can be attached to a membrane, which can be the plasma membrane or an intracellular membrane
Pancreas a secretory organ found just below the stomach in vertebrates ...

columbar cells with chloroplasts in the mesophyll tissues of leaves, just below the ~
Source: Noland, George B. 1983. General Biology, 11th Edition. St. Louis, MO. C. V. Mosby

Lower epidermis generally contains more stomates than ~
Palisade Mesophyll - tightly packed cells on the upper surface ...

For instance, the cells in the layer just beneath the ~ (closest to the incoming sunlight) are lined up like the logs driven into the ground to construct the stockade of a frontier fort.

palisade Layer of mesophyll cells in leaves that are closely placed together under the epidermal layer of the leaf. Palisade parenchyma: Columnar cells located just below the ~ in leaves the cells where most of the light absorbtion in photosynthesis occurs.

The epidermis is usually transparent (epidermal cells lack chloroplasts) and coated on the outer side with a waxy cuticle that prevents water loss. The cuticle may be thinner on the lower leaf epidermis than on the ~; ...

In floating plants the stomata are present in the ~ of the leaves for gaseous exchange, whereas stomata are absent in submerged plants.
The vascular bundles are reduced in Hydrophytes.

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Cells, Epidermis, Chloroplasts, Leaf, Stoma?

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