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Organic matter

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As long as the organic matter particle size is not too small, and the amendment is thoroughly incorporated, clay soils are improved by 'aggregation'.

Loam - a soil mixture comprised of clay, sand and organic matter.
49. Mame - a term used in size classification of bonsai trees; this being a small bonsai.
50. Moyogi - a traditional Japanese bonsai style; also called informal upright. Where the trunk curves through its taper up to the apex.

Peat - Partly decomposed organic matter, originating from the decomposition ofvegetation in bogs, marshes or heathland. As an ingredient of potting soil, peatassists in moisture retention.

Partly decomposed organic matter; when it is used as an ingredient of
potting soil it assists in moisture retention.
A form of volcanic rock that is heat treated to develop a lightweight, coarse
granule that when used as a component of potting soil has advantageous ...

Combining the right amount of organic matter (nutrients and moisture retention) and inorganic components (which provide for good drainage and root development).

When roots sit in waterlogged soil, they're like to rot and serve as a food source for soil scavengers that live off decaying ~. Choose plants that will thrive in the amount of light you can provide.

When it reaches our newly planted tree surrounded by loose ~, it is going to seep in until the planting hole is completely full of water.

They grow just below the layer of decomposing ~ that makes up the first layer of soil (consisting of old leaves, broken branches, treetrunks etc, the humus layer). With time and maturing of the tree, this second type of roots will typically replace the deep taproot.

Often provided by the use of dead ~/ Humus, the soil needs to be able to hold and retain sufficient quantities of water and nutrients for the tree to absorb.
Good drainage. If excess water is not able to drain immediately from the pot, the rootsystem will be prone to rotting.

Free draining, well-aerated soil works best for the Crepe Myrtle, but it will also need ~ (about 40% ~ is best, composted bark is a good choice) to support growth, particularly flower growth in the summer, and leaf growth in the spring.

In the wild, trees grow vigorously due to naturally evolving soil, gaining strength from decaying plant and other ~. In your pot, at home, you cannot replicate this as your bonsai's environment will be controlled.

Some trees like maples need a lot of moisture and so you will want to have a bit more ~ in it. Whereas some trees like pine and juniper will benefit more from good aeration and drainage, so using inorganic matter will result in better health.

to add ~ and nutrients to the soil through the gradual breakdown of the mulch material
to repel insects
to incrementally improve growing conditions by reflecting sunlight upwards to the plants, and by providing a clean, dry surface for ground-lying fruit such as squash and melons.

Many hobbyists have found this plant prefers some ~ in the soil mix. 
Be sure your soil drains freely.  
Howard Segelman proudly displays his imported cascade.

It contains no ~ and the granules retain their structure for years and are able to drain and hold sufficient water. Moreover, Akadama is best suited to high summer rainfall and moderately cold temperatures in winter. This type of soil prevents water-logging and freezing.

Repotting: Jades should be repotted into fast draining inorganic compost every 2-3 years. A mix of 75% inorganic matter (grit) and 25% organic (peat compost) is an ideal combination having good drainage whilst giving a degree of water retention.

Your soil should provide nutrients via ~, as well as a soil filler such as course sand or finer aquarium gravel. The soil should also be able to hold water, so you can also mix in some compost.

Fortunately trees are mostly rather adaptable and compromise readily. It follows from the foregoing that the soils used for bonsai culture should contain some sand, some ~, and some liquid retaining material. A good mix suitable for nearly all bonsai would be: ...

The ~, that makes them "bulky" in comparison to inorganic fertilisers, provides greater benefits than the simple nutrient analysis in the table suggests.

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Organic, Plant, Bonsai, Tree, Grow?

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