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ALT

Disease  Alström syndrome  Alternating hemiplegia

ALT
Definition
Alanine transaminase (ALT) is an enzyme found in the highest amounts in the liver. Injury to the liver results in release of the substance into the blood.


ALT is a blood test that determines the level of the enzyme alanine transaminase (ALT) in the blood.
Who is a candidate for the test?

ALT Results
Review Date: 02/22/2009
Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.

An increase in ALT levels may be due to:
Acute pancreatitis
Celiac disease
Cirrhosis
Death of liver tissue (liver necrosis)
Hepatitis (viral, autoimmune)
Hereditary hemochromatosis
Infectious mononucleosis
Lack of blood flow to the liver (liver ischemia)
Liver disease
Liver tumor ...

An increase in ALT levels may be due to:
Cirrhosis (scarring of the liver)
Death of liver tissue (liver necrosis)
Hepatitis
Hemochromatosis
Lack of blood flow to the liver (liver ischemia)
Liver tumor or cancer
Medications that are toxic to the liver
Mononucleosis ("mono") ...

The ~ test is often done along with other tests that check for liver damage, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and bilirubin. Both ~ and AST levels are reliable tests for liver damage.
Why It Is Done ...

Abbreviation: ' ~ '
Category: Common Medical Abbreviations
Meaning: Alanine Transaminase ...

~
See "Alanine aminotransferase"
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS
1. In a trial, the alternative hypothesis might be that a treatment of unknown efficacy has more benefit than the standard treatment.

~ (alanine aminotransferase) - An enzyme normally produced by the liver; blood levels may increase in cases of liver damage; formerly known as SGPT.
Anti-HAV - Antibody to hepatitis A virus.
Anti-HAV IgM - M class immunoglobulin antibody to hepatitis A virus.

~ (alanine aminotransferase): An enzyme normally present in liver and heart cells that is released into the bloodstream when the liver or heart is damaged from, for example, viral hepatitis or a heart attack). Some medications can also raise ~ levels.

~ (alanine aminotransferase) definition - Health and Medical Information produced by doctors - MedicineNet.com
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alt.support.asthma FAQ: Asthma -- General information ...

~ is an enzyme found mainly in liver cells, although smaller amounts are also in other organs of the body. When the liver becomes damaged, this enzyme leaks into the blood. A blood test can measure the level of ~ in the blood.

~ is an enzyme that transfers an amino group from the amino acid alanine to a ketoacid acceptor (oxaloacetate). The enzyme was formerly called serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) after the products formed by this reaction.

~ relatively lower than AST in alcoholism
Albumin
Assess severity/chronicity ...

~ (Alanine Aminotransferase)
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American Heart Association Healthy Diet Guidelines ...

~: see alanine aminotransferase.
ALTERNATIVE THERAPY: any type of treatment that is not considered standard or conventional practice in a given culture. In Western countries, traditional Chinese medicine, homeopathy, naturopathy, and chiropractic are considered alternative therapies.

~ is a form of outpatient adoptive immunotherapy utilizing autologous ex vivo activated T-cells accompanied by high dose cimetidine.
[edit] History
This section requires expansion.

~ (SGPT) must be performed at baseline and monitored at monthly intervals during the first six months then, if stable, every 6 to 8 weeks thereafter.

During ~ surgery, a laser makes tiny, evenly spaced burns in the trabecular meshwork. The laser does not create new drainage holes, but rather stimulates the drain to function more efficiently.

Liver enzymes (~ and AST): The levels of these enzymes in the blood indicate how much inflammation is occurring in your liver. High levels mean there is more liver inflammation. A lot of inflammation over time can lead to scarring of the liver.

SGOT (AST)
SGPT (~)
LDH
Ammonia
Prothrombin time
Spinal tap (lumbar puncture)'insertion of a needle between the lumbar vertebrae in the back to remove spinal fluid for testing
Liver biopsy 'removal of a sample of liver tissue for testing ...

Phase 2: Elevated ~ and AST levels, PT, and bilirubin values; renal function abnormalities may also be present and indicate nephrotoxicity
Phase 3: Severe hepatotoxicity is evident on serum studies; hepatic centrilobular necrosis is diagnosed on liver biopsy
Rumack-Matthew nomogram ...

The liver enzymes (~ and AST) may be elevated in chronic hepatitis C infection. ~ in HCV is not correlated with disease progression or underlying histology. Many patients with chronic hepatitis C have normal ~ levels.

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Alanine aminotransferase (~). This enzyme, found in the liver, plays a role in metabolism, the process that converts food into energy. If the liver is injured, ~ is released into the bloodstream. Its levels are especially high with acute hepatitis.
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP).

Alanine transaminase (~). This is an enzyme that helps to process proteins. (An enzyme is a protein that helps to speed up chemical reactions. Various enzymes occur in the cells in the body.) Large amounts of ~ occur in liver cells.

What are normal levels of AST and ~?
What do high (elevated) liver tests (AST and ~) mean?
Do AST and ~ test results indicate liver function?
What blood tests are done to detect liver function?
What blood tests are done to detect liver function? (Continued) ...

Alanine aminotransferase (~), Dentins, Secondary, Diets, Chemically Defined, Diphyllobothriasis, Enterobacteria phage MS2, Erythroblastosis, Fetal, Habituation Spasm, Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitides, Subacute, Hormone, Adrenocorticotropic, Inflammation, Pulmonary, Inhibitor, alpha 1-Protease, ...

Acute angle closure glaucoma, ~, aqueous humor, argon laser trabeculoplasty, caffeine, canal of Schlemm, cataract, closed-angle glaucoma, congenital glaucoma, cornea, corticosteroid, diabetes, fluoroscein, glaucoma drainage device, glaucoma filtration procedure, Goldmann applanation tonometry, ...

Elevation of liver enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, LDH, and ~) suggests the presence of liver metastases. Elevated alkaline phosphatase and serum Ca may be the first evidence of bone metastases. Elevated acid phosphatase (tartrate inhibited) suggests extracapsular extension of prostate cancer.

Tests: Blood tests of liver function show significantly elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (~), alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin. Positive results on a test specific for HAV (Hepatitis A IgM antibody) are necessary for a definitive diagnosis.

Argon laser trabeculoplasty (~) may be the initial treatment for patients who do not respond to or who cannot tolerate drug therapy. Laser energy is applied to either 180º or 360º of the trabecular meshwork to improve the drainage of aqueous humor.

In chronic hepatitis, the liver function tests show higher levels of the transaminases (~ and AST) than the other liver enzymes. Hepatitis B and C tests, autoantibodies, copper and caeruloplasmin levels, and other tests are also necessary.

Alanine Aminotransferase (~)
A liver enzyme that plays a role in protein metabolism. Abnormally high blood levels of ~ are a sign of liver inflammation or damage from infection or drugs. A normal level is below approximately 50 IU/L.
Alkaline Phosphatase ...

Liver enzymes: Another blood test may be performed to check for elevated levels of liver enzymes, such as alanine aminotransferase (~) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). These enzymes leak into the bloodstream when liver cells are injured. Also, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels may be checked.

At the onset of treatment 7 of the 8 patients also had elevated liver enzyme levels - SGOT (AST) and SGPT (~). Following ozone therapy these measures fell into the normal range.

1. Elevated alanine aminotransferase (~) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) are nonspecific indicators of hepatocellular damage and do not distinguish viral from drug-induced hepatitis. Alcoholic liver disease is suggested when the AST:~ ratio is greater than 2:1.

Multiple serum lab values are often elevated, including AST, ~, and GGT. Depending on the degree of liver injury, lab values may indicate depressed liver function (e.g. decreased albumin). If the hepatitis is a result of viral infection, specific serum immunologic markers may be present (e.g.

Liver enzymes tests (alanine aminotransferase (~), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (AP), and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). A series of special blood tests that can determine whether the liver is inflamed.

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Glaucoma Laser Treatment: CPC
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Photodynamic Therapy for Wet ARMD
Pneumatic Retinopexy
Refractive Lens Exchange
Sutureless Corneal Transplant (DSAEK)
Vitrectomy
YAG Laser Capsulotomy Surgery for After Cataracts ...

Liver test abnormally high-elevated AST, ~, bilirubin
Kidney tests may be high-elevated BUN, creatinine
Tests may be done to rule out the presence of other drugs.

Bilirubin
Alanine Aminotranferase (~)
Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP, Alk Phos)
Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (Gamma GT, GGT)
Albumin
Total Protein (TP) ...

The most common liver enzyme levels that are tested include GGT (gamma-glutamyl transferase), ~/SGPT (alanine amino transferase), AST/SGOT (aspartate aminotransferase), ...

SGOT (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase), also called AST (aspartate aminotransferase)
SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase), also called ~ (alanine aminotransferase)
LDH (lactate dehydrogenase)
ALP or AP (alkaline phosphatase, or "alk phos").

Total bilirubin count and the enzymes alanine aminotransferase (~) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) evaluate liver function. High levels of any of these substances can indicate liver damage, a sign that the cancer may have spread to that organ.

Enzymes
Enzymes are protein cells that help important chemical reactions to occur in the body. Examples of liver enzymes include the AST and ~.
Fatty liver disease
See nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Labs 1/19. Na 138, C1 106, BUn 13, Glu 99, K 4.5, CO2 25.4, CR 0.7, WBC 12.2, PLT 597, HCT 22.4, MCV 72.5, pulses P73 L16 E3 B0
Alk phos 72, T prot 7.2, Alb 3.1, ~ 9, AST 14, Alk phos 75, LDH 123, TB 0.5, Dilantin Less than 2.5, PT 13.5, INR 1.3, PTT 21.1 ...

SGPT: (Serum Glutamic Pyruvate Transaminase.) Also known as ~ (alanine aminotransaminase), a liver enzyme that plays a role in protein metabolism like SGOT (see). An elevated serum level of SGPT is a sign of liver damage from disease or drugs. ...

BUN (blood urea nitrogen) and creatinine: Evaluates your kidney function.
Liver function tests: Includes ALP (alkaline phosphatase), ~ (alanine aminotransferase), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and bilirubin, among others.

See also: See also: What is the meaning of AST, Hepatitis, Cancer, Liver disease, Jaundice?

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