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Frontal bossing

Disease  Friedreich Ataxia  Frontal Encephalocele

Frontal bossing
Frontal bossing is an unusually prominent forehead, sometimes associated with a heavier than normal brow ridge.

Frontal bossing Treatment
Review Date: 11/14/2007
Reviewed By: Deirdre O’Reilly, M.D., M.P.H., Neonatologist, Division of Newborn Medicine, Children’s Hospital Boston and Instructor in Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Frontal bossing is seen only in a few rare syndromes, including acromegaly, a chronic disorder caused by too much growth hormone, which leads to enlargement of the bones of the face, jaw, hands, feet, and skull.
Common Causes ...

What Is Frontal Bossing?
Frontal bossing is a medical term used to describe a prominent, protruding forehead. This symptom is the main marker of many conditions, including many issues that affect a person's hormones, bones, and/or stature.

frontal bossing, cleft lip or hypertelorism
Sprengel deformity, pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum, syndactyly
bridging of the sella turcica, hemivertebrae, flame shaped osseous radiolucencies
ovarian fibroma
medulloblastoma ...

There is a typically large head with prominence of the forehead (~), underdevelopment (hypoplasia) of the midface with cheekbones that lack prominence, and a low nasal bridge with narrow nasal passages.

The forehead and overlying skin is thickened, sometimes leading to ~. There is a tendency towards mandibular overgrowth with prognathism, maxillary widening, tooth separation and jaw malocclusion.

" Characteristic craniofacial features may include an abnormally large head (macrocephaly) with a bulging forehead (~); widely spaced eyes (ocular hypertelorism) that are abnormally prominent; a small, upturned nose with nostrils that are flared forward (anteverted); ...

People with ED often have certain cranial-facial features which can be distinctive, ~ is common, longer or more pronounced chins are frequent, broader noses are also very common.

Individuals with achondroplasia have short stature caused by rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, characteristic faces with ~ and mid-face hypoplasia, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, limitation of elbow extension and rotation, bow legs , and trident appearance of the hands.

In addition to short stature, people with 3-M syndrome have a triangle-shaped face with a broad, prominent forehead (~) and a pointed chin; the middle of the face is less prominent (hypoplastic midface).

eye inflammation, characteristic ~ (protrusion of the forehead) and protruding eyes
shortening of distal limbs giving rise to growth retardation
muscle and tissue wasting.
How is it diagnosed?

Conduction deafness and cleft palate with broad nasal root and ~, wide spacing of toes, broad thumbs and great toes, and often other signs of generalised bone dysplasia; X-linked recessive inheritance.

Early Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. Note the alopecia, prominent scalp veins, and ~ apparent in this 12-month-old infant with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. Midface hypoplasia and micrognathia are less apparent.

Prominent forehead (~)
Shortened arms and legs (especially the upper arm and thigh)
Short stature (significantly below the average height for a person of the same age and sex)
Spinal stenosis
Spine curvatures called kyphosis and lordosis ...

Characteristic facial features may include a triangular-shaped face with a small, pointed chin; an abnormally prominent forehead (~)
Precocious sexual development, Cryptorchidism
Bluish discoloration of the outer membranes covering the eyeballs (blue sclera) ...

People who have achondroplasia have abnormal bone growth that causes the following clinical symptoms: short stature with disproportionately short arms and legs, short fingers, a large head (macrocephaly) and specific facial features with a prominent forehead (~) and mid-face hypoplasia.

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Mutation, Pediatrics, Hormone, Autosomal dominant, Dwarfism?

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