Home (Proportion)

 Fine arts 

What is what? Everything you always wanted to know.
  » »


Fine arts  Proofs  Provenance

Use of unnatural proportion to show the relative importance of figures.

A principle of design, it refers to the relationship of elements to the whole and to each other; a ratio. Often proportion is allied with another principle of art, emphasis. For example, if there is a greater proportion of intense hues than dull hues in a work, emphasis is suggested.


Proportion concerns the relationships (in terms of size) of the parts of persons, buildings, or objects. "Correct proportions" may be judged intuitively ("that statue's head seems the right size for the body").

proportion. The size relationships of one part to the whole and of one part to another.
rectilinear. Formed or enclosed by straight lines to create a rectangle.
reflection. Personal and thoughtful consideration of an artwork, an aesthetic experience, or the creative process.

PROPORTION the relationship of one object to another in size, shape, number or degree.
RAINBOW an arc of colors made from the sun and refraction of water.
RADIAL DESIGN branching out from the middle.

A principle of art referring to the relationship of various elements of art to the whole composition and to each other; also refers to size relationships.
Repetition: ...

~: the relationship in size of one component of a work of art to another.
R ...

Size relationships between parts of a whole, or between two or more objects perceived as a unit.

~ The size relationship of parts to a whole and to one another.

~ - The relation of one part to the whole, or to other parts (for example, of the human body). For example, the human body is approximately 7 to 7-1/2 times the height of the head; the vertical halfway point of the body is the groin; the legs are halved at the knees, etc.

The harmonious relation of parts to each other or to the whole. The relationship or comparison of two or more images or objects in terms of size, weight, and emphasis.

In painting, sculpture and architecture, the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. The following are important: 1. the Canon of ~, a mathematical formula establishing ideal ~s of the various parts of the human body.

Refers to the harmonious relation of parts to each other or to the whole.
Pulley ...

Color ~ refers to the impact of the relative quantity of a given hue or value used in color compositions. In order to achieve over-all unity, and/or create emphasis, one should make a clear decision as to which colors should be assigned the largest and least areas.

altered ~ - A technique used by an artist to change the size relationship of shapes in an artwork.
Also see miniature, monumental, and ~.

~ is another crucial aspect that needs to be considered for wall art. When designing a small space, try to find prints that are sized appropriately (18x24 in., 9x12 in.) and then nicely hang the series horizontally or vertically.

A principle of design. ~ may be described as the relationship between objects with respect to size, number, etc.
Representational art.
Art whose subject matter contains recognizable images from real life.

The dimensions, or scale, of the various parts of an image or object, in relation to each other and to the object as a whole. The golden ratio 1:1.618 is considered an elegant ~.
SCALE: ...

Scale or relationship of one part of a work of art to the other and to the whole. Figure (adult seven-and-a-half heads high). Three-and-a-half heads from waist to top of head; four from waist to ties. Arms fall at mid-thigh. Portrait. Eyes are one-half distance from top of head.

~ - A principle of design, ~ refers to the comparative, proper, or harmonious relationship of one part to another or to the whole with respect to size, quantity, or degree; a ratio. Often ~ is allied with another principle of art, emphasis.

Study of ~s (Vitruvius Man)
study of the porportions of the head and body ...

Rhythmic ~s in Sonata III of Sonatas and Interludes for prepared piano ...

Canon of ~s- A set of ideal mathematical ratios in art based on measurements of the human body.
Caricature- An artwork that exaggerates individual peculiarities usually with humorous or satirical intent.
Caryatid- A sculpture of a draped female figure acting as a column.

scale: ~ or measurement.
sequence: a series of images, drawings, or art works that shows the development of an idea or story line.
sgraffito: a technique that involves scratching through one layer to reveal another.

The greater ~ of the art in stone that has survived was used to decorate sacred structures. Secular monuments certainly existed, and monarchs and nobles built themselves imposing palaces and mansions.

Hierarchic ~
Use of unnatural ~ to reveal the relative importance of figures.
High Key ...

Only a small ~ of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe, though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century.

in painting, sculpture and architecture, this describes the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work, as annunciated (for instance) in the Canon of ~, a mathematical formula establishing ideal ~s of the various parts of the human body.
Provenance ...

Encounter with ~ and perspective
The first Italian journey
At the end of May 1494 Durer returned to Nuremberg where he married shortly afterwards on 7 July. The family chronicle provides the following information about this: ...

FACEMAP: a ~al map of the human features
FANTASY: product of the imagination
FAUVES: the name given to a group of young painters around 1905-10 who used vibrant, unnatural colors. Matisse and Derain were leading members. The name means "wild beasts" in French ...

In Parmigianinos Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated ~s, affected poses, and unclear perspective. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ...

If the study has been made on right lines, if placing, ~, movement and construction have been grappled with, the drawing has earned its place in the stairway of art study, for it has raised the student a step above his previous attempts.

The sensitized gelatin layer hardens in ~ to the amount of light received - hardened gelatin becomes non-absorbent, whereas non-exposed areas will remain soft and receptive to water.

In capitalistsociety, hypocrisy and cynicism have now lost all sense of ~and are becoming more outrageous every day.

From Brunelleschi he acquired a knowledge of mathematical ~ that was crucial to his revival of the principles of scientific perspective. From Donatello he imbibed a knowledge of classical art that led him away from the prevailing Gothic style.

Aspect Ratio This is the ratio (~) of a shape's width to its height. B Binder The substance in a paint which holds together (binds) the pigment and makes the paint stick to whatever it's painted on. Brushwork The characteristic way each artist brushes paint onto a support.

A ~, also known as the Golden Mean, which has been employed for centuries by artists in the composition of paintings. The ~ is the result of the division of a line so that the shorter section is to the longer as the longer is to the whole. This works out to a ratio of .

Sections called ornaments (door- and window-frames, elements ~ing walls, e.g. pilasters, engaged columns, cornices) in Renaissance architectural descriptions were separated from the wall-face as if picture-frames and were carved from stones or marble. The surface was polished.

By the late 15th century the novelty of the first explosive advances of Renaissance style had given way to a general acceptance of such basic notions as ~, contraposto (twisted pose), and linear perspective; ...

They focused on the laws of ~ for architecture, the human body, and space. The term Early Renaissance encompasses most 15th century art. The High Renaissance sought to create a generalized style of art that focused on drama, physical presence, and balance.

Ral Rosarivo, in his "Typographical Divine ~", first published in 1947, was the first to analyze Renaissance books with the help of compass and ruler and concluded that Gutenberg applied the golden canon of page construction to his work.

Golden section: or cut or mean: See section on ~; geometrical ~ - going back to Plato and Euclid - often used by artists and architects consciously or unconsciously in the composition of their paintings and buildings.

The gelatine hardens in ~ to the amount of light received, the unexposed parts remaining soft and capable of retaining moisture, and the printing can therefore be done, lithographically: the plate is dampened with water and the ink is applied with a roller.

Line is a stroke or mark long in ~ to its width, made with a pen, a tool, etc. upon a surface ...more info
Linocut - Linocut is a printmaking technique in art where a sheet of linoleum is used as the relief surface ...more info
Linseed Oil - Linseed oil is oil from flax seed.

It was during this time that the artists and artisans portrayed perfectly ~ed bodies of young, buff men (and women). In fact, no human body - ever was - or ever will be, as well ~ed as the Greek statues.

Bronze - An alloy of copper and tin, sometimes containing small amounts of other elements in varying ~s such as zinc and phosphorus. Harder and more durable than brass and used extensively since antiquity for casting sculpture.

After the realistic depiction of the human form and the mastery of perspective achieved in high Renaissance Classicism, some artists started to deliberately distort ~s in disjointed, irrational space for emotional and artistic effect.

The ancient Greeks and Romans, with their emphasis on perfect ~s, were the model exponents. The tradition was continued in the Beaux-Arts style and teaching methods that developed in the second half of the 19th Century in the Ecole des Beaux Arts, the Paris school of fine art.

An alloy of copper and tin, sometimes containing small ~s of other elements such as zinc or phosphorus. It is stronger, harder, and more durable than brass, and has been used most extensively since antiquity for cast sculpture.

The Ionic order is based on a set of ~s and includes a particular kind of column base and lintel as well as capital. The order was also used by the Romans. In the medieval period, the capital was often used without a strict adherence to the rest of the system.

Collectively these works and others of the period show his increasing technical mastery of the woodcut and engraving media, his understanding of human ~s based on passages by the ancient Roman writer Vitruvius, ...

Donatello showed himself in this so admirable, both for ~ and execution, that truly it may be compared to any ancient work.

Scale refers to relative dimensions, without difference in ~ of parts, (especially the relative ~s of the linear dimensions of the parts of a drawing, map, model, etc.) to the dimensions of the corresponding parts of the object that is represented.

golden ratio The Section d'Or refers to a geometric ~ devised to give the most pleasing composition, divided so that the smaller part is to the larger part, as the larger part is to the whole. This is calculated using the number φ (phi) whose value is approximately 1.618.

"I would not be happy to see a beautiful, well-~ed woman, no matter from which point of view, however extravagant, not only lose her beauty in order to, I would say, increase in size according to the law of vision, but no longer appear beautiful, and, in fact, become monstrous." ...

The works of Brancusi could come to mind. For him, the ~ate size of things was fixed in things themselves. His "Unendliche Sule" suggests endlessness in the possibility of its determined continuation into sky as well as into earth, but its unchanged, fixed pattern renders it static.

Critics complained that its image of a fallen matador was out of ~ to the bull that had just gored him. "A wooden bullfighter, killed by a horned rat," one sneered.

Expressionism - An art movement of the early 20th century in which traditional adherence to realism and ~ was replaced by the artist's emotional connection to the subject.

It is an art style which is strongly connected to the rules of perspective, ~, anatomy and volume. Life drawing with a nude model is regarded an important foundation to figurative art.

"So, abandoning the single viewpoint and normal ~s, reducing anatomy largely to geometrical lozenges and triangles, he [Picasso] completely re-ordered the human image." ...

Rag Paper - Paper containing a certain ~ of cotton fiber in its physical structure used for prints. The higher the cotton content the higher quality the paper.

EXPRESSIONISM - a style of painting where the artist disregards traditional standards of ~ and realism while expressing his or her own inner experience of emotions by using distortion and emphasis. The artist's emotional response to the subject. examples ...

Folk Art is characterized by a naive style, in which traditional rules of ~ and perspective are not employed.
Closely related terms are Outsider Art, Self-Taught Art and Naive Art.

mannerism A style, c. 1520-1600, that arose in reaction to the harmony and ~ of the High Renaissance. It featured elongated, contorted poses, crowded canvases, and harsh lighting and coloring.

Jesus also appears to have the ~s of a real child, instead of that of a tiny adult. The winged child holding him is the only supernatural element. Leonardo's paintings of the Mary always feature her out-of-doors.

A stylized ideal of the human figure developed early among the Egyptians, with body parts sized according to standard ~s. The poses of these figures are so rigid that scenes from Egyptian art have little sense of movement.

A concept of painting in which traditional adherence to realism and ~ is overridden by the intensity of an artist's emotional response to the subject.
Impressionism: ...

and following certain rules related to geometric ~, perspective and rendering of anatomy. The Ecole closed in 1793 under the chaos caused by rebelling artists led by Jacques-Louis David. It re-opened in 1816 with the name Academie des Beaux-Arts.

Paris. Group of artists related to Cubism and concerned with ~ and geometric rhythms.

Der Blaue Reiter ...

Expressionism A concept of painting in which traditional adherence to realism and ~ is overridden by the intensity of an artist's emotional response to the subject.

Art in which the physical forms arise, not directly form observed reality, but form subjective reactions to reality. Also, any art in which conventional ideas of Realism and ~ seem to have been overridden by the artist's emotion, with resultant caricatured, ...

It is likely that their portraits were highly idealized and not true likenesses of their subjects. ~s of nearly all of the statues are identical. Most of these figures originally resided in their temples, where offerings were regularly given, even to the long-deceased.

A form of INTAGLIO printing whereby the whole PLATE is roughened to produce a burr which will carry INK. The artist then scrapes down the burr in ~ to the degree of lightness required. Very few IMPRESSIONS can be taken from this type of delicate PLATE before it becomes damaged.

scale - the relationship between the size or intensity of surface qualities which establishes a sense of relative ~ and emphasis.

Day 16: Resizing Methods - Here you'll learn 5 easy methods for creating a drawing that is larger or smaller than your original reference photo. One of the methods involves using a ~al divider, which you can print and assemble to help you resize your drawings.

I see every thing I paint in this world, but everybody does not see alike. To the eyes of a miser a guinea is more beautiful than the sun, and a bag worn with the use of money has more beautiful ~s than a vine filled with grapes. - William Blake
Last Judgement
Buy From Art.com ...

An art and design principle concerned with the arrangement of one or more elements in a work of art so that they appear symmetrical (even) or asymmetrical (uneven) in design and ~.

Wax: used for carving, engraving, moulding, modelling and casting because it is sensitive to pressure and a good material for fine detail work: traditional recipes combined beeswax with turpentine, tallow or rosin in varying ~s for various degrees of hardness or malleability ...

Classicism. A movement reflecting the explosion of freedom under the Reign of Terror and the Napoleonic empire. Begun when J.-L. David (Figure 1) placed his own head on the guillotine in the interest of public safety, it was characterized by form, ~s, and utter lack of humor.

Earlier he worked as a goldsmith and sculptor, but after having lost the competition for the design of the doors of the Florentine Baptistery (1401-2) turned to architecture. His buildings in Florence (Ospedale degli Innocenti, S. Lorenzo, Pazzi Chapel) are all characterised by regular ~s ...

An exhibiton in Paris in 1912 and a publication that brought together such artists as Robet Delaunay, Frantisek Kupka, Jacques Villon, and several others, all of whom practicied variants of Cubism and were interested in the old mathematical idea of ~ called the golden Section.

worked with large flat, geometric planes of solid colors to demonstrate theories of color contrasts and optical effects created by color. Basic color theory tells us that optical sensations can be created by using particular color combinations and changing their arrangement and ~.

The Greek classical ideals of ideal ~s (for depicting the human body as well as for architecture and painting) also regained popularity. Important artists of the Italian Renaissance were Donetello, Piero , Raphael , Titian , along with Michelangelo and Leonardo da V Read More
Go to Site ...

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Painting, Sculpture, Renaissance, Classic, Movement?

◄ Proofs   Provenance ►
RSS Mobile