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Mulching: Spread Organic Materials In Fall To Protect Plants, Improve Soil
By The Old House Web
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Plant in well prepared soil. The soil can have 50% more organic material added than you would for other vegetables.
Spinach and some of the seeds in the Mesclun Mix should be planted in mid April or as soon as the ground can be worked.

Organic material - All vegetables need a healthy amount of organic material in the soil they grow in. Organic material serves many purposes. Most importantly, it provides many of the nutrients that plants need to grow and thrive.

Organic Material
Most anything that was a plant will naturally decompose. Consisting of grass clippings, leave, plants, plant stalks, hedge trimmings, old potting soil, coffee and their filters, tea bags and weeds (as long as they don't have seeds).

Organic materials
Manure is excellent for a mulch or for incorporating into the soil. Only aged manure should be used, as there is chance of burn from fresh manure. All types add organic matter and are good soil builders. Manures should be spread on the surface to a depth of 2 to 3 inches.

~s To Avoid
Someday when your compost pile has shrunk and looks disappointedly small, you may scour your yard and home for organics to add to it. Some of those materials do not belong in your backyard compost pile.

~ Any material which originated as a living organism.
Ornamental Showy or visually pleasing.
Ornamentals Popular abbreviation for a division of Horticultural Science dealing with plant cultivated for landscape or display value.

OMRI- ~s Review Institute
This national nonprofit organization produces a list of which input products are allowed for use in organic production and processing.

Other ~s
Mulch looks nice and benefits your garden.

~s which have not broken down sufficiently (fresh manures, manures with lots of wood shavings, fresh leaf piles, etc.) should be turned into the garden in the fall or a few weeks before planting or applied only in small quantities.

~s decompose in nature to feed soil and make it healthy. You can imitate nature in your own yard by composting your yard waste and kitchen waste. Compost is used as a soil amendment rather than a fertilizer because its nutrients become available slowly.

~s, also known as organic amendments, break apart tight clays and hold water and nutrients in loose sands. ~s include compost, peat and manure.

~s such as straw, hay, shredded leaves or grass clippings work well as mulches. You can apply dry materials such as old hay three to six inches deep. If you use fresh grass clippings, use only a thin layer each time to prevent them from matting down and developing an unpleasant odor.

~: Any material which originated as a living organism.
OSMUNDA FIBER: The roots of the fern Osmunda regalis, used for making Orchid Compost.
ORNAMENTAL: A plant that is grown strictly for its foliage or flower rather than for food or any other economic use.

~ can be added to soil in the form of compost, leave, grass clippings or decomposed manure. Mixing ~ into the soil prior to planting can give your plants the boost they need to growth and be productive.
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~ also encourages the development of fruit by retaining moisture and releasing micronutrients. You can add manure, peat moss or compost up to a year before planting your trees.

~ composes only about 1% of the soil in Oklahoma. It may be higher, up to 4-5% in the cooler upper mid West. Organics are extremely important in terms of improving water handling, nutrient retention and as a home of the enormous number of beneficial soil organisms.

~s can be added to the garden as individual fertilizer components. Wood ash can be used as a source of potassium in the garden. Grass clippings can also be used as potassium in the garden. Manure and blood meal can be used as a nitrogen source in the garden.
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~ larger than 2 inches will slow down the compost process.
If grass clippings are not added to the compost occasionally add a high nitrogen fertilizer.

~s Review Institute - Certified Organic Seed and Planting Stock Sources, by Crop Category or Alphabetically.

All ~ will break down given enough time, but Costa needs a large volume as quickly as possible. To accelerate and control the decomposition, he is building a hot compost.
The Compost Bay
A hot compost needs to be at least a cubic metre in size to maintain ideal temperatures.

Add ~, such as compost, manure, or shredded leaves to sandy soil to improve its ability to hold water and to clay soil to help it drain more quickly.
Photography by Suzanne DeJohn/National Gardening Association

What ~s Can Be Used in the Compost Pile
Most anything organic, but most popular materials are natural materials such as straw, leaves, pine straw, grass clippings, shrub clippings, garbage, fish scraps, water hyacinths, etc.

Mixing ~ (preferably compost) and natural soil amendments with your soil is of great importance to your success as a gardener (see Organic Matter Management).

As the ~ breaks downs it creates a soil warming effect.
And finally - it really works!

Mulch: ~ placed on the soil surface around plants to conserve moisture, prevent crusting, reduce soil erosion, control weeds and improve soil structure.

Any pile of ~s will decompose on its own if left alone, but if your goal is usable compost in a few weeks rather than in months or a… Read More
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~ composed of decaying plant and animal matter for use in soil
Woody trees and shrubs that produce cones. Common conifers include pines, firs, spruce, juniper, redwood and hemlocks ...

MANURE -- An ~ excreted by animals (usually from steer is sold commonly) this is used as a fertilizer and an amendment to enrich the soil.
MICROCLIMATE -- The warmth and humidity of the air in close proximity to a plant. It may differ significantly from the general climate of the room.

Add ~. For a healthy lawn, your soil must contain at least 2 to 5 percent of ~. Your compost pile will provide you with these life giving nutrients.
Aerate the Area. Aerating allows oxygen to get to the roots of your lawn encouraging growth.

Add the necessary ~ (compost) and natural fertilizers in the appropriate quantities and work them into your soil as deeply as possible. Pitch forks are great for this as well as large shovels. Work it in as evenly as possible, removing stones and large debris as you find them.

Add about 4 in. of ~ such as commercially prepared compost or manure and 2 - 3 small handfuls of a slow release fertilizer. Your local garden center can recommend the proper amendments to use based on the type of tree you're planting. Mix the amendments in well.

Any loose, usually ~ placed over the soil - such as ground bark, sawdust, straw or leaves - is a mulch. The process of applying such materials is called mulching. A mulch can serve various functions.

If manure and other ~ has not been used, apply fertilizer that contains both nitrogen and phosphorus before planting. All commercial fertilizers are labeled by the percentages of N-P-K; nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K).

Organic Matter or ~
To a gardener, organic matter is something with organic compounds that you add to the soil as an amendment. In simple terms, it is decaying plant or animal material, most commonly: compost, green manure and animal manure.

Soil amendment: Any ~s you till into the soil to improve its texture and nutrient content.
Humus: The finished product of compost - a rich, black matter packed with nutrients that improves soil texture.

If your soil is heavy (clay), add ~ or plant in raised beds. Full sun is best, but eight hours will do.

Prepare beds for annuals and small plants by working in plenty of ~, layer mulch on top, then gently stick the transplants through mulch to the appropriate depth.
Garden hydrangeas' color can be manipulated with the soil pH.

Composting is nature's way of recycling and breaking down ~ back into the soil. You can add any plant material to the pile as long as it is disease-free. Compost autumn leaves, grass clippings, potato and carrot peels, apple cores, and any fruit or vegetable scraps.

For best results, incorporate ~ into the soil when planting.
Magnolias tolerate sun to partial shade, and open their sweetly scented blossoms in May and June.

Hunt around your town for a plentiful source of free ~. You might try a horse farm, food processing plant, local wood shop, or grounds maintenance service.
Cover your pile for best results. It will deter pests, hold in heat, and keep the moisture level more constant.

In borderline hardy areas, mulch with several centimetres of ~, such as shredded leaves or compost, over winter. For added protection, erect a windbreak made of burlap attached to sturdy stakes around (but not touching) the plants.

Pretty much any ~ can be added, including grass clippings, weeds, straw, manure, shredded newspaper, kitchen waste, plant cuttings and prunings.
Compost heaps break down material quicker if they are built up in layers.

Prepare the soil for planting by digging over and adding plenty of ~, such as well-rotted manure or leaf mould - this will help to improve the soil's moisture-retaining ability and fertility.

Worms feed on decaying ~ and soil. Their digestive system concentrates the organic and mineral concentrations of the food they eat, so the castings are richer in available nutrients than the soil1 around them.

0, well mulched with ~. Rhododendrons thrive in a moist, well-drained, humus-filled soil, enriched with peat moss or leaf mold. You only need to amend the soil if it is devoid of organic matter or if the pH is too high.

Soil: Give them well-drained soil rich in ~. Never plant so trunk base is below soil line, and never let soil cover base. Keep roots cool with a 2-in.-thick mulch (kept away from base).

Mold spores are everywhere, and can grow on almost any ~. Mold likes high temperatures (mid 70F), high humidity, darkness, and stagnant air. When mold is discovered check to see if it is active (soft, fuzzy, smears easily) or dormant (powdery, easy to wipe).

Composting is the simple process of controlling the decomposition of ~s so that they can be used as a soil amendment. Composting is so simple that in fact most composting guides are quick to reassure the reader that no matter what you do, ~ will rot anyway.

The best way to improve the soil condition is to add ~ such as straw, grass clippings and leaves. It may be necessary to add a fertilizer with more nitrogen, as these non-composted materials will take nitrogen from the soil as they break down.

~s for composting all contain nutrients that provide energy and growth for microorganisms. These ~s each have their own ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C:N) in their tissues (Table 1).

~s used for compost should include a mixture of brown ~ (dead leaves, twigs, manure) and green ~ (lawn clippings, fruit rinds, etc.). Brown materials supply carbon, while green materials supply nitrogen.

Think about making use of the pile of ~s as a growing medium. Throw in a few spuds, and keep piling more materials around them as they shoot, to encourage more roots and potentially more potatoes.

Soils should contain five percent ~. Nearly all soils, whether clay, sandy or humus, benefit from the addition of organic matter. Spread a layer of organic matter two to three inches thick over the soil surface and incorporate it six to eight inches deep.

Carrots prefer a light soil which has been improved with lots of well-rotted ~ fully dug into the soil. Carrots grown on heavy soil, or where ~ is not well-rotted, will become misshapen and grow 'forked. Stones in the soil will have the same bad effect.

The unconsolidated mineral or ~ on the immediate surface of the Earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants. Soil is formed by the physical, chemical, biological weathering of the parent material.

Fresh ~s lose more than half their volume by the time they are fully decomposed. The best option, if available, is to add compost to the soil. After a few years of large additions you can decrease the amount to 1 in. each year. It takes 8 cubic feet of compost to cover a 100 sq. ft.

In addition to man-made fertilizers, there are natural, ~s that can be used to feed your lawn. A mulch mower chops up grass clippings and distributes them back onto the lawn, thereby returning nitrogen to the soil.

Improving your soil's moisture-holding capacity is as simple as mixing ~, such as compost, into your beds. Depending on the type of soil you have, more organic matter can mean more accessible water for your plants.

Remove weeds and spade in rich ~. You'll have plenty of time to do this, since cucumbers are subtropical vines that prefer the sunny days and balmy nights of summertime. Seeds need about an 80F temperature to germinate, but then will do so in four to five days.

The best gardens are rich in ~s. Over time, your plants consumes the rich nutrients present in the soil. Those nutrients need to be replaced for future crops. The best way to do that is organically, by adding lots of rich garden compost on a regular basis.

Compost - Decayed ~ used as a plant fertilizer.
Conifer - A cone-bearing tree or shrub, often evergreen, usually with needle-like leaves.
Container Grown - Plants, trees and shrubs raised in a pot. The pot is removed before planting.

A layer of loose ~ spread thickly over the ground, to minimize weeds, help the intended plants retain moisture (keeps as much water from evaporating from the soil), and will keep the ground cooler - protecting tender roots from severe heat.

When planting in a container, always use potting soil that contains perlite or bark so the pot has good drainage and enough ~ to absorb and hold moisture.

A layer of material spread on top of the soil around plants. ~ such as shredded bark, compost or leaf mold retain moisture and insulate roots. Inorganic material such as black plastic suppress weeds and retain moisture in the soil.
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decomposition The breakdown of ~s by microorganisms.
defoliation The unnatural loss of a plant's leaves, generally to the detriment of its health. Can be caused by high winds, excessive heat, drought, frost, chemicals, insects, or disease.

AMENDMENT - Usually referring to some form of ~ being added to the soil for the purpose of improvement.
AMPHIBIOUS - The ability of plants to brow both in aquatic and in the exposed soil. Usually in a moist or boggy condition, when the winter recedes in the area.

Composting lawn and garden waste is a great way to obtain ~ for your garden while reducing the environmentally negative aspects of trucking yard waste to the landfill. This DIY compost bin is easy to build and made from pressure treated wood so it will last for many years to come.

- Make sure you've got healthy soil with plenty of ~ and an appropriate pH level.
- It is best to plant your flowers, trees and shrubs on a cool or cloudy day to minimize the stress of transplanting. Planting in the early morning or late afternoon also helps.

Autumn leaves, lawn clippings, compost and pine needles are all suitable for use as mulch. Other ~s include sawdust, straw, hay, wood chips, wood bark and shredded redwood. Inorganic materials include synthetic weed block, gravel and shredded rubber.

A garden additive made from ~ such as garden & kitchen refuse that has been stored in such a way that air, moisture and sometimes worms will break down the materials into a homogeneous substance.

A bin into which is placed ~s (grass clippings, leaves,vegtable and fruit peelings) in order to create compost.
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Cover spring-flowering bulb plantings with 2 to 4 inches of ~ after cold weather arrives in fall. Avoid unshredded leaves because they can mat down tightly. Remove the mulch in early spring.

Remove black plastic mulch or cover it with organic mulch. Cover soil with ~ such as compost to moderate temperature and retain moisture.
Monitor plants for insect problems and begin controls immediately.

These networks and tunnels are literally a transport system for nutrients and ~.

Digging over roughly in the autumn, leaving a good surface area exposed to frost and adding plenty of bulky ~ can help to improve the condition and drainage of a clay soil. The addition of a carefully calculated amount of lime and some course grit can also be useful.

Generally, horse manure is piled up with decomposing horse bedding like straw and sawdust mixed. After it has been aged, it maybe mixed with other ~s such as soil, worms, and beneficial fungi.

You will need a lot of soil and ~ to make a raised bed that is of a decent size, but it is still easier to have the nursery dump a load of each where you want your bed than to dig through clay and rocks to make your bed.

standing crop search for term- weight or ~ that can be sampled or harvested at any one time from a given area, but may not necessarily include the entire plant. Usually refers to normal harvesting procedures, unless specified, for the particular plant under consideration.

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Organic, Plant, Soil, Gardening, Flower?

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