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nonspatial data
Data without inherently spatial qualities, such as attributes.
normal distribution ...

nonspatial environmental variation = step (3),
spatially structured environmental variation = step (1) - step (3), or step (2) - step (4),
spatial species variation not shared by the environmental variation = step (4), ...

For nonspatial data warehouses these operations are well studied and implemented in various software products. For spatial warehouses the first three items (Slicing, Dicing and Pivoting) can be solved in the same way as for non spatial ones.

(1) [data models] Nonspatial information about a geographic feature in a GIS, usually stored in a table and linked to the feature by a unique identifier. For example, attributes of a river might include its name, length, and sediment load at a gauging station.

It is the process of creating a spatial description of a place, such as a point feature from a nonspatial description of that place, like a street address.

An sDSS typically uses a variety of spatial and ~ information, like data on land use, transportation, water management, demographics, agriculture, climate or employment.

Maintenance and Analysis of ~ Attribute Data
Just as various functions are required to edit, convert, and maintain spatial data, functions for editing, converting, and maintaining the ~ attribute data also are required.

Any combination of spatial and ~ criteria can constrain a query, and can be used in combination with spatial navigation tools that enable the user to quickly locate a region of interest. The result can be displayed as a simple list of documents, or graphically on a map.

[ESRI software] A dataset in ArcGIS that stores the address attributes, associated indexes, and rules that define the process for translating ~ descriptions of places, such as street addresses, into spatial data that can be displayed as features on a map.

Graphs may also be created for ~ tabular data and can show both additional information about the features on the map or the same information in a different way.

Our understanding of the types and approaches of models, however, is based on decades of ~ modeling experience. This section presents a classification framework for GIS models and a flowcharting methodology.
Topic 6 Alternative Data Structures - At the heart of GIS is data.

Nongraphic Database (also ~)
Set of tabular data records, each record containing multiple data fields. In the context of spatial databases, one of these fields is the Unique ID Number of a corresponding map feature.
NSDI ...

This is commonly utilized to combine attribute information from one or more ~ data tables (i.e., information taken from reports or documents) with a spatially explicit GIS feature layer.

NaC (SRID 999998) means Not-a-CRS. Its name is patterned after the NaN (Not-a-Number) value in Java. It is intended for potential use with ~ geometries.
The following restrictions apply to geometries based on the unknown CRS and NaC coordinate reference systems: ...

A geo-database is an object-oriented data model that represents geographic features and attributes as objects and the relationships between objects but is hosted inside a relational database management system. A geodatabase can store objects, such as feature classes, feature data sets, ~ ...

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Information, GIS, Feature, Database, Geographic?

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