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Topography-based hydrological modelling in the Elbe drainage basin
The paper is focused on the applicability assessment of two models for large scale hydrological simulation, both of which are based on the topographic index concept.

The configuration of a surface, including its relief and the position of its natural and man-made features.

See Also: topographic map
[cartography] The study and mapping of land surfaces, including relief (relative positions and elevations) and the position of natural and constructed features.

Topography is the study of Earth's surface features or those of other planets, moons, and asteroids.

Topography: The features of the actual surface of the Earth, considered collectively according to their form, such as grassland, cultivated, desert, forest, swamp, etc. A single feature, such as one mountain or one valley, is called a topographic feature.

~: The relief, elevation or shape of the earth in a given area.
Topology: The explicit definition of how map features represented by points, lines and areas are related. Specifically, issues of connectivity and adjacency of features are accounted for.
U ...

~ Shape or configuration of the land surface; represented in map form by contour lines.
topology The spatial relationships between connecting or adjacent coverage features.

~ -- n. The relief features of the Earth's surface, above and below sea level; the set of landforms in a region.
trace fossil -- Evidence left by organisms, such as burrows, imprints, coprolites, or footprints. Trace fossils are not preserved parts of the organism.

~ Loads a new raster or constant value to use as elevation (z values) for the current surface.
color Loads a raster or constant color to drape over the current surface. This option is useful for draping imagery such as aerial photography over a DEM.

The configuration of the Earth's surface including relief and the position of natural features. Contours indicating lines of equal surface elevation are used to illustrate ~ on a map.
The Official Website of Jo Daviess County, Illinois Government ...

~ Maps
Cadastre Plans Microstation
Cadastre Plans Autocad
Topographic & Cadastral Mapping ...

~ for a given cross section
Rock Volumes
Curvature analysis of folds
Fault geometries and orientations
The interaction of fluvial systems with geology
The location of good outcrops to visit ...

~ refers to the surface characteristics with continuously changing value over an area such as elevations, aeromagnetics, noise levels, income levels, and pollution levels. The ~ of a land surface can be represented in a GIS by digital elevation data.

(PDF file size - 1.13mb)
2' contours, buildings, pavement, water features, property lines and annotation
color and black & white, with/without property lines and annotation
*1938 property lines are not available ...

The study and mapping of land surfaces, including relief (relative positions and elevations) and the position of natural and constructed features. Referenced by: Hydrography; Figure of the Earth; United States Geological Survey; U.S.

~ is often mistakenly used as an alternative to relief but the two are somewhat different. ~ refers to the description or representation on a map of all features in a given area, both natural and man made.
Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) ...

The ~ - the physical surface of the earth.
The Geoid - the level surface (also a physical reality).
The Ellipsoid - the mathematical surface for computations.

Other ~ functions include illumination techniques to enhance display of elevation or relief, viewshed modeling to determine what areas can be seen from a specific point for appraising visual impacts, watershed analysis to determine the extent of the watershed, ...

While the ~ is becoming more apparent, it is still better to display continuous data with a stretched, rather than classified, symbology.

The effect of ~ on geoid
J. Ádám - Sz. Rózsa: The determination of terrain corrections of gravimetric measurements for the precise geoid determination. Proceedings of 11th Satellite Geodetic Seminar, pp. 80-87., Hungarian Military Mapping Institute, Budapest, 1997.

While the term ~ describes the precise physical location and shape of geographical objects, the term topology is more concerned with the logical relationships between the position of those objects.

Topographic Map Map that displays ~ through the use of elevation contour lines. Base elevation on these maps is usually sea-level. Topographic Profile A two-dimensional diagram that describes the landscape in vertical cross-section.

The shape of Earth's surface or the geometry of landforms in a geographic area.
Trace Element:
An element that is present in very small quantities.
Traction: ...

topographic map See: map, topographic ~ Configuration (relief) of the land surface; the graphic delineation or portrayal of that configuration in map form, as by contour lines; ...

AR 115-11. Army ~. 30 November 1993.
AR 210-20. Master Planning for Army Installations. 30 July 1993.
AR 310-25. Dictionary of United States Army Terms. 15 October 1983.

~ - Configuration (relief) of the land surface; the graphic delineation or portrayal of that configuration in map form, as by contour lines; in oceanography the term is applied to a surface such as the sea bottom or surface of given characteristics within the water mass.

~: The study of the relief of a given area on the Earth's surface, usually on a large scale, including both natural and man-made features.
Topology: The relative location of geographic phenomena independent of their exact position.

(Topology of ~) pixel p. 29 smallest resolvable unit in an image; an area (usually rectangular) forming a part of a systematic, uniform division of a study area. Contraction of picture element. planar graph p.

Also referred to as laser altimetry or LiDAR; an active remote sensing technology that measures ~ of the earth's surface, and landscape feature heights and intensity.

~, man-made features), and cultural (e.g., land use, demographics) information in a common and accurate reference framework.

Merges horizontal and vertical geometry with 3D ~ for application of design standards and typical sections
Define typical sections with horizontal and vertical geometry paths
Component control points enforce defined features or geometries: horizontally, vertically, or both ...

3D rendering of a DEM of Tithonium Chasma on Mars A digital elevation model (DEM) is a digital representation of ground surface ~ or terrain. ... The Landsat program is the longest running enterprise for acqusition of imagery of Earth from space. ...

Helens ~.
Underlying all this is a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) that encapsulates the topographic undulations. It uses traditional X and Y coordinates to position a location plus a Z coordinate to establish its relative height above a reference geode (sea level in this case).

Karst ~ appears when soluble layers of bedrock (carbonate rocks such as limestone, dolomite and marble) interact with the acids in the water.

We may need to visualize the ~ of urban areas in three dimensions to plan for a night on the town or to respond to an emergency. We may need a 3d visualization of a historic urban scene to investigate a situation that doesn't exist anymore.

For many mapping applications, like ~ and certain kinds of navigation, a lesser constraint, conformality or fidelity of shape, is the most fundamental requisite: at the intersection of any two lines on the map, the angle between is the same as between their counterparts on the sphere; ...

Here are some maps of Afghanistan showing the ~ of the country. Good overlay material for Afghanistan is in short supply. The best I have found are Russian 1:50,000 and 1:200,000 topo maps, but they are not cheap. An example of one of these maps (of Kabul) is shown to the right.

Imagine if all of the Earth ~, mountains and valleys were scoured off leaving a continuous world's ocean completely at rest, without the effects of currents, weather and tides. The effect of the Earth's gravity on this hypothetical world mean sea level is represented by the geoid.

As inputs into a GIS, the term base map is usually applied to those sources of information about relatively permanent features including ~, soil data, geology, cadastral divisions, and political divisions.

The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries, 1606-1968, New Jersey Bureau of Geology and ~, 1969. The Mapping of New Jersey: The Men and the Art, Rutgers University Press,1973. The Mapping of New Jersey in the American Revolution, New Jersey Historical Commission, 1975.

The text of the survey provides general information on the climate, geology, and ~ of the area being covered, usually a county.

We have recently taken a major step in making synthetic vision a reality by collecting the detailed terrain data needed for the digital earth map during the Shuttle Radar ~ Mission.

e.g. we may know that the ~ is more rugged in one part of the area, and sample more densely there to ensure adequate representation
if a representative sample of the entire universe is required, then the subsamples in each subpopulation will have to be weighted appropriately ...

The course of a river channel may change fairly rapidly as a result of flooding, landslides may alter ~ significantly, roads are added or go out of use, etc. Because of these changes, it is important to have a fairly recent (or recently updated) topographic map to ensure accuracy.

[cartography] A map representing the ~ of a seafloor or lake bed, using contour lines to indicate depth.
Choropleth map
[cartography] A thematic map in which areas are distinctly colored or shaded to represent classed values of a particular phenomenon.

Most project maps generally depict similar information - ~, property boundaries, roads, water, elevation, etc. However, the quality of property acquisition maps can be raised greatly (along with their effectiveness with trustees, donors, stakeholders, etc.) by applying the following: ...

Very irregular ~ resulting from wind and water erosion of sedimentary rock.
Base Level:
The lowest level to which a stream can erode its bed. The ultimate base level of all streams is, of course, the sea.

Hill shading - A method of portraying ~ on a map by shading different locations with tonal differences (i.e. different levels of gray) according to illumination by an assumed light source from the northwest, thus creating a pictorial representation of relief.

At time of publishing, there are templates available for streets, ~, government infrastructure, trails, historical events, and reference overlays (to be viewed over imagery), with more templates on the way.

Digital imagery in which distortion from the camera angle and ~ have been removed, thus equalizing the distances represented on the image.
GIS Acronyms that start with O
OGC - Open Geospatial Consortium ...

Aerial photograph which has been processed to remove all distortions caused by camera tilt, perspective, and ~; the scale is uniform across the entire image
DRG : Digital Raster Graphics
Scanned image of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) standard series topographic map ...

Llobera, M. 1996. Exploring the ~ of mind: GIS, social space and archaeology. Antiquity 70: 612-22.

GIS allows organizations to enhance network maps and business information with weather intelligence, ~, rights-of-way, satellite imagery, and field data.

Rivers are flowing bodies of waters. There are rivers on every continent (except Antarctica). Rivers are an important part of the Earth's water cycle and the sculpting of the Earth's ~ as they carry huge quantities of water from the land to the sea.

Feature collections can be identified at different abstraction levels, i.e. high abstraction level, e.g. "~" and low abstraction level, e.g. "roads". The terms feature, feature collection and coverage are defined in line with OpenGIS 5." [Category=Geospatial ] ...

New Zealand: Land Information New Zealand -- official government mapping agency of NZ
Switzerland: Federal Office of ~
UK: The Ordnance Survey of Great Britain -- the official mapping agency of the United Kingdom
USA: US Census US Census GIS FAQ ...

A typical black to white gradient allows for 256 different levels of brightness, and stretching these 256 shades between the Min and Max values allows you to clearly view the different ~ in the DEM data.

primary data capture instruments that combine a theodolite (or transit), which measures horizontal and vertical angles, with a tool to measure the slope distance from the unit to an observed point. Use of a total station allows field crews to quickly and accurately derive the ~ for a ...

The resulting perspective view illustrates the dramatic changes to the ~ that mining would cause.

Sugar loaf mountains Idealised profiles of mountain shapes as a means of depicting ~ before accurate surveying was available.

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Model, Information, Geographic, Map, Surface?

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