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Transformation

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Transformation
The process that converts coordinates from one coordinate system to another through translation, rotation, and scaling.


Affine Transformation
affine transformation - [Euclidean geometry] A geometric transformation that scales, rotates, skews, and/or translates images or coordinates between any two Euclidean spaces. It is commonly used in GIS to transform maps between coordinate systems.

A common transformation in North American data is between NAD83 and WGS84, or between the GCS North American 1927 and GCS WGS 1984 geographic coordinate systems as shown below.

Geometric Transformations
This function is concerned with the registering of a data layer to a common coordinate scheme. This usually involves registering selected data layers to a standard data layer already registered. The term rubber sheeting is often used to describe this function.

00155: No transformation exists from the data frame's datum to WGS 1984 Major Auxiliary Sphere ...

Elastic body transformation
A least-squares computer software program run against a raw digitized data source map to produce a geographically true "X" and "Y" coordinate database referenced to any standard map system.

This land use/land transformation modeling workshop will focus on three main themes: (1) the use of landscape ecology approaches for land transformation/land use change modeling, and, in particular, the need to address the integration of the human dimensi ons and aspects of scale into modeling; ...

To Use Version 2 of the Canadian National Transformation
To Use the New High Accuracy GDA94 Datum
To Set Up a GDC File
To Set Up a GDC File for the United States
To Set Up a GDC File for France
To Set Up a GDC File for Australia and New Zealand ...

Transformations and Associative Procedures
In addition to nouns, our analysis requires associations. We need to model what we mean by properties NEAR subway stops. For this we will use many of the basic procedures of vector GIS: ...

TRANSFORMATION AND CONSTRAINED ADJUSTMENTS
B-56. The next step is derivation of transformation parameters between minimally constrained adjusted vectors and selected points in local geodetic system. This usually carried out together with a least-squares adjustment.

6.1.7 Transformation
Transformation is the conversion of coordinates from one coordinate system to another coordinate system.

Format Transformations
Format is the pattern into which data are systematically arranged for use on a computer. Format transformations are used to get data into acceptable GIS format.

Transformation Parameter Computation: 5) Compute image-to-photo transformation parameters
6) Initialize exposure station parameters
7) Compute photo-to-target transformation parameters ...

The transformation phase of a Spatial ETL process allows a variety of functions; some of these are similar to standard ETL, but some are unique to spatial data.

The transformation from the latitude and longitude co-ordinates into the geocentric co-ordinates is rather straightforward and turns ellipsoidal latitude (j), longitude (l) and height (h) into X,Y and Z, using 3 direct equations that contain the ellipsoidal parameters a and e.

the transformation is made to the surface of a cone tangent at a small circle (tangent case) or intersecting at two small circles (secant case) on a globe ...

Affine transformation - A combination of linear transformations (rotation and scaling) followed by translation (shift of position). In geographic data processing, affine transformation is used to register maps of different scales and origins.
...

2. New transformation method for map projection using Delaunay Triangulation, in addition to the least square bi-linear method.
4. Added support to SDL format for MapGuide software. Digitize your maps and publish them directly to the Internet with R2V.

Topic 9: Transformation of Raster Datasets
Supplemental references
Knuth, Donald., The Art of Computer Programming, Volume 3: Sorting and Searching. Second Edition, 1998, Addison-Wesley, MA. ISBN 0-201-89685-0.

DataGroup Transformation Services
Part Rendering Upgrade Wizard
Architectural:
Editing Multiple Space
Roof Builde
New Handrail too
Slabs - DataGroup Placement and Modif
Flip/Side Offset for Wall Placemen
New Catalogs and Conten
Unified Casework Schema/Catalog ...

Geometry > Transformations > Miscellaneous Transformations >
Area-Preserving Map
A map from to is area-preserving if ...

Coordinate transformations defined by mapping relations
Usually those relations are not functions, as the same point on the sphere may be represented by several points on the map.

However the transformation is easy to automatize if the data in their metadata header contain transformation parameters to a generally accepted local reference corresponding the site the data describe.

3) Apply the transformation matrix to each pixel on the image to map the old location to the new location. In the case of DEMs, each point has three dimensions while L1A data has two dimensions and involves only planar transformations.

map-to-page transformation The process of positioning and scaling a map on a graphic page. It controls how coverage coordinates are transformed into graphics on the display screen or plotter page. (Coverages are not maps; they contain the unscaled coordinates that ArcInfo uses to draw maps.) ...

The geometric transformations that arise during map reprojection efforts can cause problems for raster graphics and represent a third disadvantage to using the raster data model.

Provides point transformation from one coordinate reference system to another.
Includes transformation between datums.
Large number of projection classes supported.
Implemented Standards¶ ...

A mathematical transformation of he earth's surface to create a flat map sheet. The UTM projection is well suited for small areas.
Unzip/Zip ...

Area (containment): arcs containing a polygon with given area Transformation The process of converting data from one coordinate system to another through translation, rotation, and scaling.

No map projection transformation can maintain scale everywhere. Angles, areas, distances and directions will be altered in the planar representation of the ellipsoidal earth. The distortions created during the map projection transformation may be analyzed using a measure of distortion.

For information on transformations to other grid systems:
New Zealand Map Grip from Land Information New Zealand, the official mapping agency of NZ ...

General Coordinate Transformation Package (software); Geographic Coordinate Transformation Package (software)
GD
Geologic Div. (USGS); Geospatial data; Graphic digitization ...

10 properties that remain unchanged despite transformations of the numbers used to represent a measurement. isolated object frameworks p.

coordinate transformation Source: GETIS glossary A mathematical operation on coordinates that includes a change of datum.

This can be distinguished from the transformations done within GIS analysis software by the fact that these changes are permanent, more complex and time consuming.

This is an error measurement that most GIS report during geometric transformation of data sets. It is mathematically the spatial equivalent to the standard deviation.

Not formed by a projecting light source, Mercator's projection is a completely mathematical transformation of the earth onto a rectangular map. It was presented in 1569 by Gerhard Kremer, known as Mercator, the Latinized version of his name.

Conversions from various formats and from raster to vector and vector to raster are examples of format transformation.

A number of mathematical transformations can be employed to best depict the three-dimensional surface of the Earth on a flat map. However, these transformations do create some type of distortion artifact.

This is because in order to do operations that require raster transformations or other rater warping / clipping etc, PostGIS uses GDAL epsg files.

Geospatial data are encoded with certain units (feet, meters, degrees, etc.), the spatial components of each feature (lines, points) are projected using a mathematically defined transformation. The earth is round and maps are flat, map projections flatten the round earth.

Contents > Map projections > Getting started with map projections > An overview of map projections Geographic coordinate systems (all topics) Projected coordinate systems (all topics) Geographic transformations (browse all topics) Supported map projections > List of supported map projections ...

This generally requires a systematic mathematical transformation of the earth's graticule of lines of longitude and latitude onto a plane.

[programming] Acronym for Extensible Style Language Transformations. A language for transforming the tagged content in an XML document into an output document with another format. An XSL style sheet contains the XSLT code that defines each transformation to be applied.

Perhaps the most frequent geometric transformation is the conversion of lines to polygons. This happens a lot because many CAD programs often use line segments to build parcels (and other features), but within a GIS these features are best coded as polygons.

Commoditization implies the transformation of goods and services into a commodity thus becoming an undifferentiated product characterized solely by its price, rather than its quality and features.

Available under either a UNIX or Windows-NT operating system, ARC/INFO contains a comprehensive selection of advanced functions for data entry and editing, data conversion, coordinate projection and transformation, spatial and tabular data management, spatial analysis, cartographic production, ...

Transformation is not a projection. Transformation uses a linear formula to transform Cartesian coordinates in the x- and y-axes. There are three type of coordinate transformations that can be use: affine, projective, and similarity.

Because of the non-rigorous relationship between AGD66/84 and GDA94 and inaccuracies in AGD, the transformation parametres between the two vary across the country. The National Transformation Grid overcomes this problem to a very large extent by developing local parameters based on a national grid.

Manufacturing "The Manufacturing sector comprises establishments engaged in the mechanical, physical, or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products.

the abbreviation for geographic information system. GIS are special-purpose digital databases in which a common spatial coordinate system is the primary means of reference. GIS contain subsystems for: 1) data input; 2) data storage, retrieval, and representation; 3) data management, transformation, ...

ArcGIS 10.2 Delivers Transformational Capabilities
The new release of ArcGIS transforms enterprise mapping with dramatic improvements in ease of use, real-time data access, and integration with existing IT infrastructures.

Projection A map projection is a mathematical transformation of the surface of a sphere (3D) onto a 2D plane. Due to the laws of the universe, each type of projection must make tradeoffs on how and what features it distorts. Raster A raster is a rectangular grid of pixels.

Conflation is a process by which two digital data layers, usually of the same area at different points in time, or two different data layers of the same area, are geographically "corrected" through geometrical and rotational transformations so that the different layers can be overlaid on one another.

Relational Database: A method of structuring data in the form of sets of records so that relationships between different entities and attributes can be used for data access and transformation.

Before this information can be integrated, it must be transformed to the same scale (degree of detail or accuracy). This could be a temporary transformation for display purposes or a permanent one required for analysis.

The 'srtext' column is used to store the Well Known Text format of the spatial reference system, identifying datums, projections, prime meridians, units and other spatial references. Finally the 'proj4text' column utilizes the Proj4 open-source projections library to allow coordinate transformation ...

GIS standards categories COMPUTING STANDARDS hardware software data formats communications (cabling, network protocols) DATA COLLECTION AND TRANSFORMATION STANDARDS geodetic control, locational accuracy, base map coordinate-reference system mapping scale, resolution data content, ...

See also: See also: Transform, Information, Map, Coordinate, Model

GIS  Transform  Transgression

 
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