Supercell Thunderstorms thunderstorms with deep rotating updrafts
The last of the four major storm types is the supercell. We define a supercell as a thunderstorm with a deep rotating updraft (mesocyclone).
Supercell thunderstorms are sometimes classified by meteorologists and storm spotters into three categories. However, not all supercells fit neatly into any one category, and many resemble all three at different times during the lifespan of the storm.
A persistent, single, intense updraught and downdraught coexisting in a thunderstorm.
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A severe thunderstorm characterized by a rotating long-lived intense updraft. Although not very common, supercells produce a relatively large amount of severe weather, in particular, extremely large hail, damaging straight-line winds, and practically all strong tornados.
Supercell - A thunderstorm with a persistent rotating updraft. Supercells are rare, but are responsible for a remarkably high percentage of severe weather events - especially tornadoes, extremely large hail and damaging straight-line winds.
~ storm An enormous severe thunderstorm whose updrafts and downdrafts are nearly in balance, allowing it to maintain itself for several hours. It can produce large hail and tornadoes.
Supercooled cloud droplets Liquid cloud droplets observed at temperatures below freezing.
~- A storm with a strong, tilted and rotating updraft due to good instability and wind shear in the troposphere. Most of the strong tornadoes and large hail occur with ~s.
SUPERCOOLED- Liquid water having a temperature that is below freezing
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~- A highly organized thunderstorm with a rotating updraft, known as a mesocyclone. It poses an inordinately high threat to life and property. Often produces large hail, strong winds, and tornadoes.
~ thunderstorm A relatively long-lived, large and intense cell characterized by an exceptionally strong updraft; may produce a tornado.
Potentially the most dangerous of the convective storm types. Storms possessing this structure have been observed to generate the vast majority of long-lived strong and violent (F2-F5) tornadoes, as well as downburst damage and large hail.
~ Thunderstorm- A severe thunderstorm whose updrafts and downdrafts are in near balance allowing the storm to maintain itself for several hours. ~s often produce large hail and tornadoes.
Classic ~ - See ~.
Clear Slot - A local region of clearing skies or reduced cloud cover, indicating an intrusion of drier air; often seen as a bright area with higher cloud bases on the west or southwest side of a wall cloud.
Classic ~ See ~.
Clear Ice It is a glossy, clear or translucent ice formed by the relatively slow freezing of large supercooled droplets. The large droplets spread out over the airfoil of an airplane before complete freezing, forming a sheet of clear ice.
~ Thunderstorm- An unusually violent thunderstorm that is capable of generating tornadoes.
Subsidence- The descent of a body of air, usually in a high pressure area, that warms the lower levels of air.
~ - A severe thunderstorm whose updrafts and downdrafts are in near balance for several hours. ~s often produce large hail and tornadoes.
Temperature - The measurement of how hot or cold something is.
Thermometer - The instrument that measures temperature.
~ - A highly organized thunderstorm with a single, and very powerful updraft. The speed of this updraft is very high, sometimes 150 MPH, and is accompanied by persistent rotation on a broad scale. These elements allow such a storm to last longer and pose a threat to life and property.
LP ~ thunderstorms often have a small updraft base as seen in this thunderstorm near Hart, Texas.
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>> ~ thunderstorms: In some ways, this can be regarded as a special case of the multi-cell storm, with some additional factors. The environment is still sheared in the vertical, indeed markedly so in the lower layers, and daughter cells are produced.
Severe ~ development is most likely in an environment possessing great buoyancy (CAPE) and large vertical wind shear. A Bulk Richardson Number of between 15 and 35 favor ~ development. Typically, the hodograph will look like a horse shoe.
However, downdraft may also originate from neighboring thunderstorms and the high pressure bubble adopts quasi-frontal characteristics if it originates from a ~ or squall line.
Scattered large precipitation particles (rain and hail) at the interface between the clear slot and wall cloud may show up on radar as a hook or pendant; thus the presence of a hook or pendant may indicate the presence of an RFD. See ~.
See a ~ for an example. SHEAR It is the rate of change over a short duration. In wind shear, it can refer to the frequent change in wind speed within a short distance. It can occur vertically, such as a change with height, or horizontally.
Transverse rolls are one type of transverse band, and often indicate an environment favorable for the subsequent development of ~s. Since they are aligned parallel to the low-level inflow, they may point toward the region most likely for later storm development.
Flanking LineA line of cumulus or towering cumulus clouds connected to and extending outward from the most active part of a ~, normally on the southwest side.
~ thunderstorms often exhibit inflow notches, usually in the right quadrant of a classic ~, but sometimes in the eastern part of an HP storm or in the rear part of a storm (rear inflow notch).Inflow StingerA beaver tail cloud with a stinger-like shape.
Four Basic Thunderstorm Types Thunderstorms occur in a variety of forms, sometimes as an isolated cumulonimbus cloud (anvil shaped), sometimes as a cluster of clouds, sometimes as a squall line, and sometimes as a ~ (massive convective cloud system).
HP Storm or HP ~
High-Precipitation storm (or High-Precipitation ~). A ~ thunderstorm in which heavy precipitation (often including hail) falls on the trailing side of the mesocyclone.
A horizontal, tail-shaped cloud (not a funnel cloud) at low levels extending from the precipitation cascade region of a ~ toward the wall cloud (i.e., it usually is observed extending from the wall cloud toward the north or northeast).
Most summer severe weather events, including damaging tornadoes, are spawned by a special type of thunderstorm known as a ~. With ~s, multiple strong updrafts continue to feed the storm, allowing it to maintain its intensity for several hours.
In the central plains of the United States they are most frequent in spring during the late afternoon. See also ~ tornado, non~ tornado, gustnado, landspout, waterspout. 2. A violent thundersquall in West Africa and adjacent Atlantic waters.
A area of rotation of storm size that may often be found on the southwest part of a ~. Its circulation can be larger than the tornado that may develop within it, but not necessarily. Originally a radar term for a rotation signature that met certain criteria, it is best seen on Doppler radar.
Right Mover - A thunderstorm that moves appreciably to the right relative to the main steering winds and to other nearby thunderstorms. Right movers typically are associated with a high potential for severe weather. (~s often are right movers).
A line of attached cumulus or towering cumulus clouds of descending height, appearing as stair steps (usually on the southwest side) of the most active part of a ~.
See also: What is the meaning of Storm, Tornado, Cloud, Thunderstorm, Thunder?