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See "spot."
St. Gaudens
Short for Augustus Saint-Gaudens or slang for the Standing Liberty double eagle or Saint.

Milk Spots - White spots that appear on proof coins. These spots are part of the coin and can not be removed by any known process.
Mint State - Also known as uncirculated. Mint State coins rnage in grade from MS60 (Basal) to MS70 (perfect). All Mint State coins have no wear what so ever.

shiny spots
Areas on Matte, Roman, and Satin Proofs where the surface has been disturbed. On brilliant Proofs, dull spots appear where there are disturbances; on textured-surface coins such as Matte, Roman, and Satin Proofs, these disturbances create “shiny' spots.
Shotgun rolls ...

Shiny spots
Areas on Matte, Roman, and Satin Proof coins where the original dulled surface has been disturbed.
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Carbon spots
Detrimental oxidation specks appearing on the surfaces of a coin.
Cartwheel luster
THe surface brilliance of an uncirculated coin originating from when the coin was first produced. This brilliance disappears when a coin circulates or is cleaned.

Copper Spots
Small red/orange areas of patina that occur on gold coins because of impurities in their alloy. Large, numerous copper spots will cause the grade of a gold coin to be lowered, while small and unobtrusive ~ are not usually considered when determining a coin's grade.

Copper Spots - Small red or orange areas of patina that occur on gold coins because the metal was improperly mixed in its molten state.
Copper-nickel - Coinage alloy composed of copper and nickel in varying amounts.

~, fingerprints and other discoloration, other than on copper coins, usually fall into the eye-appeal category (which will be covered a few chapters later). Most ~ are at least partially removable, unless the coin is copper or nickel.

- Dark ~, usually black or brown, found on the surface of a coin. They can be of various sizes and shapes. These carbon colored ~ are caused by oxidation on the coin's surface and will sometimes hurt the coin's value.
Carson City Mint ...

Very small ~ of oxidation sometimes found on coin surfaces, resembling flyspecks. Caused by exposure to minute moisture particles. Top grade nickel and copper coins most susceptible.
Fractional Currency
Paper money with a face value of less than one dollar.

Minute oxidation ~ often seen on the surfaces of coins, particularly higher grade copper and nickel coins, caused by exposure to small drops of moisture.
Any false coin, produced for whatever purpose, is a forgery. Forgery is also the act of making false coins.

NGC Coin Grader ~ Rare Morgan Dollar Variety
By Numismatic Guaranty Corporation A recent bulk submission included a rare San Francisco 1921 Morgan Dollar hidden among nearly 1,000 other Morgan Dollars.

Often, carbon spots will form on the surface of silver, nickel, or copper coins, damaging them to a certain extent and lowering the value. Caused by impurities in the air and/or metallic alloy of the coin.

blemishes - Minor nicks, marks, flaws, or ~ of discoloration that mar the surface of a coin.
bronze - An alloy of copper, zinc, and tin.
bullion - Uncoined gold or silver in the form of ingots or plate.

Very Good (VG): Considerable wear over the whole coin, and high ~ worn through. Coins in this or the previous grades are really only collectable if extremely rare. This picture is of the reverse of a 1905 penny which is Good to Very Good (i.e. awful!) ...

Technically, this is a sandblast piece, but a Gem Proof nevertheless, with strong fundamental supporting surfaces free of marks, devoid of ~, tops in its class, and for that matter, mesmerizing to gaze upon.

There are ~ of bright bronze showing in areas of harsh cleaning or possible smoothing in the fields. The field areas around both tips of the hat are of a slightly different color than the rest of the coin, possibly due to tooling or smoothing.

IMPORTANT POINT: When storing coins, be careful of the material used in the storage device, many plastics react with the surface of coins causing them to discolor or develop black ~.

Grading well struck examples of No Motto fives is a rather straightforward process: look for rubbed ~ on the highest portions of the design elements - the hair curls and above the eye of Liberty on the obverse and on the eagle's wings on the reverse.

On many, this wear will be limited to the high ~ of the obverse with the reverse being free of actual wear. Over 75% of the original luster will be present and the protected areas should show unbroken luster. The surfaces are free of serious bagmarks.

White ~ on a tin coin caused by storage at temperatures below 13.2C (about 56F) and below. Pure tin transforms from the (silvery, ductile) allotrope of β-modification white tin to brittle, α-modification grey tin. Eventually it decomposes into powder, hence the name tin pest.

and ~ which penetrate the surface of a coin are
unattractive. And if a coin appears unattractive to you, it
probably will appear that way to other people, too.
Therefore, you should stay away from it.
Even coins with very high grades-coins which have been ...

Because of rust ~ on the die the reverse was recut. Notice the denticle border design visible near the feet of Britannia. The denticles are much wider than on the previous example and are positioned differently. Note the large denticles below the line and to the right of Britannia's feet.

Coin may have been dipped at one time, possibly to remove stains or ~, but not to the extent where luster is seriously impaired. Surfaces may be somewhat dulled due to environmental factors including improper storage. Marks and abrasions are usually detracting and numerous.

Black flint with cortex ~, possibly collected from the East Coast, scraper. Flake with broad flakes removed from its dorsal side by multi-directional angled hard hammer strike, and with a concave negative bulb on its ventral side. Invasive angled scalar retouch follows the outer curving edge.

"It has since been beautifully preserved," Rohan said, "and has developed no ~ or other distractions. The coin remains a solid Premium Gem MS66, with full mint Red. For the error specialist, this would be the centerpiece of an advanced collection.

The more serious problem is the light green ~ which are actually fairly deep pits in the surface where the patination and underlying metal have corroded away.

The coins of the Persian Satraps and of the Greek de~ in Persian pay who, from time to time, issued money at various mints on the west coast of Asia Minor, before the time of Alexander the Great, may be here classed together, as the actual places of mintage are, for the most part, doubtful.

Peace Dollars may have what is known as a "water ~", minor blemishes on the coin surface that reduce eye appeal though they don't necessarily affect the grade. The reverse of the Peace Dollar is typically worse than the obverse (opposite of Morgans).

Saliva and food oils or residue can lead to carbon spots, corrosions, and discolorations. Unless necessary, avoid touching your coins. But if you really have to, make sure that you have washed your hands clean and have dried it off thoroughly.

Associating sceattas with particular mints or kingdoms is very difficult, and must be based primarily upon study of find-~, mostly made by metal detector users since the 1970s.

Moderate flat ~ may show. Expressed in percent, werar is in the region of 26 to 35%. Detracting marks are in keeping with expectations for a coin with up to 35% wear, but they must never be severe.

Invariably, the seller will err on the higher side while the buyer will find any number of blemishes, hairlines or weak ~ to lower the grade. To bring some degree of 'science' or objectivity to this process, standard classifications and descriptions have been established.

copper spot: the reddish ~ of color that occasionally appear on gold coins due to oxidation of the small amount of copper in the alloy.
copper-nickel: an alloy used on United States coins that mixes Copper and Nickel in varying amounts.

nickel coins (which are 75 percent copper) and silver coins (which are 10 percent copper). Carbon spots are brown to black ~ of oxidation that range from minor to severe - some so large and far advanced that the coin is not graded because of environmental damage.

Always set aside coins that give you even a little suspicion, if one is busy but ~ or suspects that there is something odd with a certain coin set it aside for further inspection later.

Pure acetone - PVC contamination occurs when the PVC in a coin holder causes green ~ or an oily film on your coin. In order to remove this, use pure acetone, which you can find at the cosmetics section at your local drug store.

AG-3 (About Good) - Type and date are discernable, although some ~ may be worn out. Some lettering should be apparent, if not necessarily readable.
G-4 (Good) - Major devices and features are evident as outlines. although the coin overall is heavily worn.

Good (G) - Heavily worn. Design and legend visible but faint in ~.
On some coins, full rims are not required for this grade. You must be able to read the date and mint mark.
Almost Good (AG) - Outlined design. Parts of date and legend worn smooth.

Use bleaching cleanser on stubborn ~. Rinse well. After it's good and dry, apply a coat of masonry sealer to keep it from absorbing so many stains and dirt in the future. For mildewed grout in tub and shower enclosures, scrub with a 1:5 solution of liquid chlorine bleach and water, then rinse.

Very often, owing to the lapse in time between the striking of the original coin and the restrike, the dies have become rusty and small raised ~ will show up on the coin as a result; the field shows these marks particularly clearly.

No visible distracting marks or ~. Some years ago PCGS listed only 12 better in the Red Brown Category, and only 60 higher in red. NGC in its January 2005 Census Report lists just 103 in MS-64RB and only 30 higher in MS-65RB. A 65RB goes for about $350.00. This one only $190.00 ...

Places to study are the Indian's eyebrow, chin, and hair above the braid. Smooth ~ have been created on the Buffalo's upper and lower legs, head and body, although a separation from one area to the next remains. The branch mint "D" and "S" Buffalos are nice collectibles in this grade.

There may be large detracting contact marks, or damage ~, but no trace of circulation wear. There could be a heavy concentration of hairlines or unattractive large areas of scuff marks. Rim nicks may be present and eye appeal is very poor.

16 mm. 12:00. 3.53 grams.
Drachm. Copper breaks through the high ~, including the eagle on the reverse.
Prototype: Sear Greek 6730 variety.
Antiochus III, Seleucid King 223-187 BC ...

Spotting/Spot: Refers to a spot of discoloration on the coin, commonly toning or staining. ~ can reduce the value of a coin but usually should not be cleaned without professional advice.
Striations: Another term for Die Polish Lines (see above).

There are only small traces of wear visible on the highest points of the coin. Wear often occurs in different ~ on different designs, and the larger fields will show some surface disruptions, however much of the original luster is intact.
About Uncirculated (AU-50) ...

Mike K. writes: I am trying to find out any information I can about a penny that I have. It is a 1972S penny. It is worn in the high ~ and show a silver metallic coloring. I have asked local coin dealers about it and they think it is a copper clad aluminum penny. […]
Continue reading.

The accumulation of chloride ions on archaeological coins made of copper or its alloys can result in a condition called "bronze disease." Bright powdery green ~ appear on the surface. If this corrosion process is not corrected, it can destroy the coin.

Extremely Fine (EF): A coin with little sign of being circulated. Slight wear on high ~ on close inspection, and all other detail clear and sharp with minimal scratches and marks. Much mint lustre may remain. (US Grade about AU)
Half Penny EF(Extremly Fine) American XF40 - 44 ...

One of the few bright ~ among a long line of bizarre Seleukid rulers. The younger brother of Denetrios II, he deposed the usurper Tryphon [who minted beautiful coins] and ruled with wisdom and integrity until killed in battle against the Parthians [who had captured his brother 9 years earlier].

Buying rare coins based on price alone.
Buying rare coins with the wrong "look" for the type or grade (ex: darkly toned or coins with ~).
Buying the wrong grade coin for the date or type.
Buying common generic coins instead of rare coins.

GF4 IHSIDIDENS, Abu'l-Qasim. Islamic Palestine. AH 334-349/946-961. Gold Dinar. Islamic legends both sides. SNAT-128, Album-676. VF, flat ~. $275 ...

This means that the coin is not so well preserved but the condition is not so bad. G stands for good and implies heavily worn and includes the design but contains faint ~. AG or almost good means parts and date of the design have been rubbed away but an outline of the design is still visible ...

The world is changing rapidly and focus will be on the new Web, precious metals rise, debt fears, where to safely retire, danger zones, economic migration hot~, and looking at how social media and emerging technology is emancipating the masses.

Make sure to do a small survey of stations and ask if they prefer the recording on CD or DAT (digital audio tape). Radio ~ are quite unpredictable, ...

I have read of other similar markings, but haven't seen them in my limited experience. Possibly, only the highest grade coins will show these markings. Many of the higher grade coins I've seen have been marred with unattractive carbon spots.

Often looking like ~ of something on the coin. Usually, it is a form of tarnish or staining. Spotting may have a negative effect on the value of a coin depending on how severe it is, etc.

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Coin, Revers, Reverse, Struck, Mint?

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