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Parallax is an effect in photography where the image seen in the viewfinder is not framed the same as the image seen through the lens, because the viewfinder is in a slightly different position to the lens.

The variation in viewpoint of a camera's optical viewfinder and that of the taking lens. This increases as you go closer to the subject.
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Techniques Glossary Parallax
The variation in viewpoint of a camera's optical viewfinder and that of the taking lens. This increases as you go closer to the subject.

Parallax is the effect of looking through a viewfinder that is distinct from the camera lens itself. Most point & shoots have you look through a small opening that is an inch or two away from the actual lens.

With a lens-shutter camera, parallax is the difference between what the viewfinder sees and what the camera records, especially at close distances. This is caused by the separation between the viewfinder and the picture-taking lens.

The difference in point of view that occurs when the lens (or other device) through which the eye views a scene is separate from the lens that exposes the film.

Parallax error
The difference between the image seen by the viewing system and that recorded on the film. Problems occur as the subject moves closer to the taking lens when using TLR cameras. Only through-the-lens viewing systems can avoid parallax error.
(see TLR) ...

Fuji calls the placement of the stereo window "Parallax Control" and has a parallax control lever on the camera you can use to adjust it's placement.

~ problems-This occurs mainly with range finder and twin lens reflex cameras. The distance between the center of the lens and the viewfinder causes parallax. The closer the lens is focused to the subject, the more evident the parallax.

Parallax error doesn't affect SLR because in SLR the viewfinder sees through the camera lens so what the camera sees is exactly what you see. Better high-end compact cameras have automatic parallax correction but even this is not foolproof.

PARALLAX ERROR - Also known as "Parallax effect" - the viewfinder camera's main disadvantage, making it almost useless for careful composition of close-up subjects.

The apparent difference in position of an object when seen from two different viewpoints.
Pantone ...

~: The difference between the field of view seen through a camera's viewfinder and the image recorded on film by the taking lens of a twin lens reflex camera.

~. An effect seen in close-up photography when the viewfinder is offset by some distance from the lens. The scene through the viewfinder is offset from the scene through the lens.

~ - difference in the fields of view of two lenses aimed parallel to each other
Perspective - relative size and alignment of objects
Time exposure - a comparatively long exposure made in terms of seconds or minutes, used primarily in night photography ...

Parallax error: The difference between what the lens sees and what you see through the camera's viewfinder; especially pronounced at longer focal lengths and with closer subjects.

~. An effect seen in close-up photography where the viewfinder does not see the same as the lens. This is normally due to the offset of the viewfinder and lens. This is not an issue if you are using the LCD as a viewfinder or if your camera is an SLR..

~ compensation. An adjustment made by the camera or photographer to account for the difference in views between the taking lens and the external optical viewfinder.
~ error. Viewpoint difference between the picture seen in the viewfinder and as seen by the camera lens.

The disparity between viewing and imaging angles when they are not identical, as with sports finders or twin-lens cameras.

-~ - difference between the image seen by a viewing system and that recorded on film. Only TTL viewing systems avoid parallax error.
-Paraphenylenediamine - reducing agent used in some fine grain and color developers.

The difference between the image seen by a viewing system and the image recorded by the imaging sensor. In point-and-shoot cameras, as subjects move closer to the lens, the variance increases. Only through the lens (TTL) viewing systems avoid parallax error.

Lack of parallax and ability to cope with high zoom-ratio lenses, without the need for a bulky reflex mirror. Cameras with a separate optical viewfinder show the scene from a different viewpoint than that of the camera lens.

To avoid parallax find the nodal point of your lens by guessing at it and rotating the camera around. The perspective shouldn't change between near and far objects, they should remain lined up the whole time as the camera rotates. This will take a little adjusting.

With care, parallax error can be made undetectable in handheld panoramas which do not have foreground subject matter.

iOS 7 has a parallax feature that creates a layered experience where app icons appear to jump off the page at you. You may have noticed that if you tilt your iPhone and iPad from side to side or up and down, the wallpaper moves with it. This is part of the way Apple achieves this affect.

~ Generally speaking, parallax is the apparent shift in the direction to an object as seen from two different locations. This shift can be used to determine distances (through "triangulation").

If your camera has a viewfinder in the upper left corner, you may have problems with parallax, especially for close-up shots. This means that the viewfinder is looking at a slightly different area than what the lens is seeing. Cameras with a through-the-lens viewfinder don't have this problem.

TLRs suffer from parallax. The viewing lens is higher than the taking lens and captures a different image. If the image is a mountain 20 miles away, the three inches of separation won't be significant.

OVF focus point parallax error / correction (FW 1.1)
As briefly mentioned above, while the framelines are parallax-corrected in the OVF, the autofocus point isn't.

A disadvantage of twin-lens systems is that parallax errors occur. Parallax refers to the difference between the image seen through the viewing lens and the image transmitted to the picture-taking lens (fig. 4-8).

Optical viewfinders suffer from ~ error. As they are not completely in line with the lens, they show a slightly different view than the actual image. This will not be a problem in images taken from a distance, but when capturing close-ups this is something to take into account.

Struggling with problems of moving subjects and ~ viewfinders our first attempts at underwater photography involve getting the subject in the frame without losing any important bits. After mastering this we continue to work at composition.

On the whole the X-Pro1's OVF handles ~ and changing focal lengths very well and is a very clever piece of engineering design. One thing that doesn't work out so well, though, are the 'frame guides' that divide the screen into either 9 or 24 rectangular areas.

A quirk of P&S cameras is that they usually have a ~ error but it's normally corrected for normal shooting distances. This is because most viewfinders are offset to the side of the main lens.

Strobe-mounted accessory lights: In a pinch, you can always duct-tape or rubber-band a small dive light to the strobe head, but there will be ~. The strobe head will not be lighting exactly the same area illuminated by the dive light.

This achieves what’s known as the ~ effect, where the part of the dog nearest to the camera looms huge and the part furthest away becomes disproportionately small. Or, if you have a lens with a macro facility, try focusing on just the nose or paw for a more abstract image.

Sure, collectors will always pay für LEICA, but for photography, do you have any idea how great it is to just tap a lever on the Fuji X100 to see live through the lens and make the ~ go away for close shots?

Beam splitter (semitransparent mirror)
Light-gathering window
Framelines projection/~ compensation unit
Framelines projection semitransparent mirror
Rotating mirror/pentaprism
Viewfinder frame
Static Image
Secondary Image ...

As with most digital cameras, the optical viewfinder only displays 85 to 90 percent of the actual image. The S100's optical viewfinder lacks any ~ guidelines. This omission is probably irrelevant to the average snapshot shooter, but we found it a little frustrating at times.

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The small lenses in the base of the mirror box focus the light from opposite sides of the lens. Because of the gap between these two points, a ~ is created where each one sees slightly different views of the subject, just like the two input lenses in a rangefinder camera.

Often mounted above and to the right or left of the lens. It exhibits a problem known as ~ when trying to frame subjects closer than five feet from the camera so it is advisable to use the color LCD when shooting close-ups for this very reason.

If your reference point and the scales on the ring are separated too far, it is hard to match lines to read min. f-numbers due to ~ problem.

Why should you do this? Changing the camera's position between shots will cause nearer objects to move relative to background objects in different images (in other words, it will cause ~ errors).

The proportion of the image in the viewfinder that actually ends up in the picture, expressed as a percentage, is known as accuracy. The very best you can do is 100 percent. DSLRs have uniformly very high accuracy these days. Note that SLR viewfinders can, and often do, show ~ -- the finder ...

~ errors makes these systems less accurate as the camera and subject become closer. The viewfinders used in SLR cameras allow the photographer to see through the lens and, as a result, are much more useful. (See also: Electronic Viewfinder).

See also: See also: What is the meaning of Camera, Image, Photograph, Lens, Light?

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