Dynamic Range and Tonal Range of the Image
Once you apply a tonal curve to the linear sensor data, the dynamic range and tonal range of the image can vary independently, depending on what tonal curve you apply. The tonal curve can compress the dynamic range, the tonal range, or both (*).
In photography, tonal range refers to mid-tone values expanding to occupy the scale between the lightest and darkest points of an image. The wider the range expands, the more contrast there is, and the more mid-tone values would be represented in the image.
TONAL RANGE - The various shades of gray between solid black and absolute white.
TONE - also known as "Value" - The degree of lightness or darkness, or color variation from cold tones (blues) to warm tones (reds), in an area of a print, whether a color print or a black-and-white print.
TONAL RANGE - The range between the lightest and darkest areas of an image. Also known as Dynamic Range. A picture containing very bright areas and very dark areas has a "wide" tonal range.
Tonal Range - a photographic term used to describe the quality of color and tone ranging from an image's darkest shadow through to the brightest highlight details, including all of the transitions in between these extreme levels.
U is for...
USB/USB 2.0 ...
Expand ~ Using A Single Image
RAW files help to reveal greater shadow and highlight details ...
Extreme ~ Sometimes, the range of tones is so great that no exposure setting will cope with both the shadow and highlight details. It may, however, be possible to sacrifice one or other and still have a usable image.
The ~ of the final image depends on the characteristics of the display medium. Monitor contrast can vary significantly, depending on the type (CRT, LCD, etc.), model, and calibration (or lack thereof).
Tones and ~: Black and white images consist of tones and shades rather than color. A ~
refers to the tones of the darkest to the lightest areas in an image. An image that has a good amount of light areas as
well as dark areas is said to have a wide ~.
3) WIDEST ~
Digital SLRs are dynamically challenged. In contrasty light they have a hell of a time with highlight and shadow detail. Sure, they've improved, and RAW helps. But they have far to go before they match a color negative's ability to lasso photons high and low.
The original ~ in this desert scene is mostly in the midtone area. There are very few pixels in the 0-30 range and very few in the 240-255 range. While this image looks decent on a computer monitor, it would probably look a little flat when printed.
Evaluating the ~
Dynamic range in music is the range between the faintest and loudest sounds that can be reproduced without distortion. In photography the dynamic range, called the ~ or contrast, indicates the range of brightness in an image between pure white and pure black.
That was your camera's electronics trying to compensate for the wide ~ of your relatives - bright shirts and blouses but dark, shaded eyes or faces. Even digital cameras, with their extended range of tonal stops, cannot compensate for some of those extremely bright situations.
The colour version of the above images seems very high contrast with a large ~, but in truth we can see that its overall tonality is the same, broadly speaking. Colour fools the eye, so learning to see in black and white is critical for correct exposure.
Raw files also have two other important advantages, their ability to capture a bit more ~ than JPEGs and the ability to convert raw files in 16 bit mode. Like negatives vs. slide film raw files have a bit more exposure latitude than JPEG files.
Global Contrast: The range between the lightest and darkest portions of your image and the distribution of contrast through the ~ to accentuate the most important elements within the photo.
Long ~, from highlights to shadow detail, is required. Lighting ratios must be calculated and adjusted with care, and exposure calculations must be precise. Lenses of the highest quality, which are spotlessly clean, enhance the photographic quality of any size format. VIEW CAMERAS.
Any edit that affect the ~ or contrast of an image will do this. What may have been a smooth gradient in the original is no longer smooth. The inset image here shows an enlarged view of the Photoshop Levels display from making exactly this adjustment on an 8-bit gradient image.
The exposure is nicely balanced with detail throughout the ~ and colours are natural and well saturated. At first glance the detail in the crops looks sharp and well resolved.
One way to extend the ~ of a digital image is by making two exposures of a scene. Shooting in Manual mode, make one exposure configured to capture the best highlight detail. Make a second exposure to capture the best shadow detail.
When you spot a photo that looks like it would average out into a ~ that is a lot different from 18% then warning bells should sound and you will then set about helping your lightmeter by compensating the reading that it is given.
The clipping previews are much more useful than the histogram for keeping the extremes of the ~ under control. But what about the midtones? That's a harder question.
As can be seen in the detail images above, there was little difference observed in the ~ of the scans.
The first post-processing lesson was about manipulating ~ and balance through the levels control. With Levels, you can change the black point, white point, and midpoint (aka gamma).
The Output Levels allow a photographer to compress an image into a smaller ~ (e.g., 10 -- 245) than the 0 -- 255 range that is normally used. The left value sets the darkest tone, and the right value sets the lightest tone. Directly below the Output Levels are two sliders.
The region where most of the brightness values are present is called the "~." ~ can vary drastically from image to image, so developing an intuition for how numbers map to actual brightness values is often critical-both before and after the photo has been taken.
When a scene is well lit and has an average ~ (with nothing being too dark or too light) and the light is fairly even, getting a good exposure is a pretty simple process. Your camera's built-in automatic exposure does a good job of recording subjects like this correctly.
~: The range of tones between the lightest and darkest areas.
T setting: Time setting. The shutter remains open after it is pressed and released. It is closed again by pressing the shutter release.
TTL: Through-the-lens metering.
With flatbed scanners that are being used to scan prints this isn't too important because the ~ has already been reduced in the printing process. A higher dynamic range is essential on film scanners when scanning transparencies that have a wide ~.
Moving any one of them to the right makes some part of the ~ brighter, and moving any one of them to the left makes that part of the range darker.
The purpose of the graduated neutral density filter is to create a much narrower ~ between the sky and land so that the overall effect of the image isn’t as contrasty. The top of one of these filters is dark and the bottom is clear.
An Adobe Photoshop functionality that allows to adjust the ~ of a digitized image.
A graph used in digital photography that displays ~. A straight line at 45 degrees shows that the contrast is unchanged. To modify contrast you can usually click anywhere on the line and pull it in any direction.
Now choose a tint colour for each ~ using the Hue sliders. Alternatively, you can click the small colour swatch next to each ~ and use the colour picker to set both hue and saturation. Tweak the balance between the two tints using the Balance slider.
Canon's CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) sensor captures images with exceptional clarity and ~, and offers the most pixels in its class.
The Levels dialog box lets you correct the ~ and color balance of an image by adjusting intensity levels of the image's shadows, midtones, and highlights. The Levels histogram serves as a visual guide for adjusting the image's key tones
Lens Speed ...
The process was capable of making exquisite prints with a wide ~. Negatives were printed onto a "tissue" containing carbon and other pigments in a gelatin base. The gelatin had previously been made light-sensitive by a bath of potassium bichromate.
-Tone separation - process of reducing the ~ of a photograph to a very restricted range. The final result has strong highlights and deep shadows with a set number of intermediate tones. Also refereed to as Posterization.
Output levels allow you to change the images ~. Instead of pure black to pure white you can adjust the maximum whiteness or maximum blackness to a shade of grey if desired.
This negative is too "flat" (low contrast) it is lacking adequate ~ usually caused by under-exposure or under- development.
This neg is considered normal. It has blacks and whites and a nice
range of grays.
Shooting RAW files will give you the most editing head-room, as you'll be able to extract more detail across the ~ in raw compared to JPEGs.
Abuse your raw files for a striking high-key portrait
Raw images: 10 tips every beginner must know before ditching JPEG ...
I second Chris Leavens (and totally love your style man, especially your ~, very subtle and very easy on the eye), it feels great to be grouped with such a strong collection of fellow illustrators!
Dynamic Range describes the ratio between the maximum (true black) and minimum (true white) ~ of an image capturing or reproduction device (i.e. a camera, a scanner, a printer).
Prev - C
Histograms are a very useful tool that many cameras offer their users to help them get a quick summary of the ~ present in any given image.
It graphs the tones in your image from black (on the left) to white (on the right).
The good news is that the default black and white settings are quite good, resulting in images with nice ~.
I snapped a fair number of black and white photos for this Nikon D60 guide, and didn't get the impression that they needed any further adjustment.
Oil reinforcement is a method of altering the ~ of prints on matte or textured fiber papers. The dried print is rubbed with a medium consisting of two parts of turpentine to one of mastic varnish and one of linseed oil. Artists oil color is then applied locally to the print.
To achieve the impression of continuous tone we need to reproduce 256 differentiation's of tone from white to black. If we break down the ~ into fewer differentiation's you begin to see the breaks between the individual tones.
Be aware of the ~ on your three key compositional elements. Does the light detract from the subject or draw our eyes towards it? Darker tones near the border of the image will help draw the viewers eyes to the main subject and keep our eyes from venturing out of the frame.
It must be emphasized that this tutorial is not about creating HDR images in the traditional way; it is about bringing out as much ~ as possible with a single image.
Tone Mapping ...
Underexposing your images will always produce a darker sky, though you'll of course underexpose the rest of your scene as well. If you're going to do this shoot in raw so you can keep as much of that ~ as possible, ...
All three are warming filters in that they shift the color balance towards the red (warm) end of the ~. With film, warming filters are useful, but with digital, again corrections which mimic the effect of a warming filter can be easily be made post exposure.
But there's a lot more to Leon's modern-day version than merely being a remarkably similar one to the original image. From a photographic perspective, Leon's work here is outstanding! The excellent monochromatic ~ and detail give his photograph an authentic 1940's silver gelatin ...
The LCD preview (when you can see it) does let you get the best possible exposure given this limitation, but it is impossible to capture the wide ~ possible with black and white negative film. Bonus points for a digicam with a histogram display.
The paint on the house is also a yellow color that lies somewhere between mid-tones and highlights. About two-thirds of the ~ is bright, and that should mean a big spike at the very right of the histogram. After all, that's how our eyes would see this on a sunny day.
A digital camera's sensor, and in this case the iPhone's camera sensor, will have a certain ~ or number of stops that "see" certain levels of light ranging from dark to bright. Most of the levels are on the right half of the range.
of February, is available in small and large sizes, although as with all gemstones, very large sizes in rich, deep colors have always been rare. Designers celebrate amethyst as the ideal choice for jewelry because of its regal color, variety of sizes and shapes, affordability and wide ~ ...
Use unusual directional lighting and angles for especially striking effects. Whether you are working with film images in a darkroom or on your home computer, black and white photography offers great latitude for altering exposure and ~ to get a really dramatic image. Give it a try.
several images of the same object) or by reconstructing the details lost due to the faultiness of the optical system (applying knowledge of the optical system's properties).
PhotoAcute Studio uses both ways to achieve the maximum image quality. It also enhances the dynamic range and the ~ ...
Another benefit of the NEF file is that depending on the camera, it retains 12-bit or 14-bit data, resulting in an image with a far greater ~ than an eight-bit JPEG or TIFF file.
See also: What is the meaning of Image, Photograph, Camera, Light, Photography?