Pressing: The first step is the pressing of freshly picked grapes. Only about 50% of this juice, known as flower must, is used to make cava.
pressing, important winemaking operation involving literally pressing the juice (white wines) or astringent press wine out of the skins. The quality of the resulting juice depends on how hard the grapes are pressed (as explained on p 67).
pressings wine: The red wine pressed off skins following fermentation. Compared with free run wine, pressings wine has deeper colour, more flavour and tannin, but often is more bitter.
The process of pressing more juice out of grape skins after the initial free run juice is pumped away. This is higher in tannins and acids, but can be used to give lesser wines more flavour.
In white wines, the process of pressing grapes to extract their juice. In the red wine vinification process, only the grape solids are pressed after alcoholic fermentation.
The solid gunk left over after squeezing all the juice out of crushed grapes.
~, usually done right after the crush for white grapes and after fermentation for red wine grapes, ...
~ the grapes extracts juice as well as additional color and tannins. Too much pressure will also begin leaching bitter tannins from the seeds, so care must be taken. Modern presses use rubber compound bladders inflated by air pressure as a way to avoid the bitterness.
The "~" is the juice extracted from the grapes under pressure. It has more flavour, a stronger smell, deeper colour and more tannins than free-run juice.
Unpleasant sharpness resulting from excessive volatile acidity.
Ex~ the fact that the wine is rich, full of extract, and mouth filling.
Used to describe a wine with light texture and subtle flavor.
A method of ex~ the alcohol content of spirits. Wine has the actual percentage listed. In the US proof is double the percentage of alcohol. So a 100 proof spirit, contains 50% alcohol. In Great Britian it would be 57.06% by volume.
PRESS WINE (or ~): The juice extracted under pressure after ~ for white wines and after fermentation for reds. Press wine has more flavor and aroma, deeper color and often more tannins than free-run juice.
Cuvee - The ~, or a blending of several wines.
Decanting - The process of pouring wine from its bottle into a decanter to separate the sediment from the wine.
Pomace is solid residue remaining after ~ the grapes. It is composed of skins, stems, and seeds.
Powdery mildew, also known as oidium, is a fungal disease that delays grapevine growth.
Solid Matters remaining after ~. Distilled to obtain brandy.
White Type of vine especially cultivated in the area of the Hermitage.
Different name for the imperial bottle.
It is fresh, clean, and ripe, ex~ pear, peach, spice (cardamom? vanilla?), and a touch of grapefruit on both the nose and the palate. It also has hints of lemony citrus, mineral, and herbaceous flavors, and is held up with a good edge of racy acidity. Texture is smooth, almost creamy.
“Straw wine,' the process used to make these wines by drying grapes on straw mats before ~, is a style of wine-making that was passed on from the ancient Greeks. In 643 Lombard King Rotari wrote an edict protecting Corvina and other local grapes from being pulled.
Maceration is often avoided altogether when making white wines, with winemakers crushing and ~ their grapes as quickly as possible to immediately separate the juice from the skins.
Whether the grapes are pressed immediately after crushing or let stand on the skins for flavour extraction before ~, once the juice sample has settled and cleared, the acid and pH readings should be accurate. The same cannot be said for red grapes, however.
Auslese, Beerenauslese, Trockenbeerenauslese and Eiswein - As in Germany, Austrian dessert wines are classified according to the sweetness of the grape juice at ~. The lowest category of dessert wines is auslese, which are generally rich and moderately sweet.
that fermentable juice can still be extracted even after the third ~.
This is in contrast to grapes such as Chardonnay and Merlot whose juices are
retrieved even before ~ or during the first and second ~s in
order to create good wines.
Olorosos are intentionally produced with free run juice and must produced by ~ grapes in order to extract a small quantity of tannins that will give the wine a higher structure.
~ then follows to release the juice. The gentler the ~, the finer the juice. The juice (also called 'must') is allowed to settle for a few hours. Any adjustments to the must can be done at this stage, including the addition of extra sugar ('chaptalisation').
Pressed pomace: The spent pomace after ~ has removed all the usable juice or wine. Pressed pomace can be sweet or dry, depending upon whether the ~ took place before or after fermentation.
After ~, winemakers leave the juice in contact with the skins for an extended period of time in order to extract flavors, tannins, and dark colors.
The free-run wine is the juice that runs off the vat without any ~. The wine released by ~ the cap is known as press wine.
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The crushed grapes are introduced into the cylinder, and the tube is inflated, ~ the grapes against the rotating cylinder sides and forcing the juice out through the perforations. Several ~s may be made without the extensive hand labour required for basket presses.
Marc: Residue left after the ~ of the grapes. After the wine has been taken from the press, the marc can be used in its distillation or for making the eau-de-vie "Orujo".
Marrying: The blending of two or more wines in a cask in order to yield a wine with more desirable characteristics.
Crush: Breaking the grape skins prior to ~ or fermentation and the season of the year when this occurs.
Cuvee: A specific blend of wines, often of different varieties and vintages, combined to make sparkling wine. Occasionally also used for table wine.
Proof: Scale for measuring and ex~ the alcohol content of liquids. The "proof" of a liquor is twice its alcohol content, ie, 80 proof = 40% alcohol. Since wine is always much lower in alcohol than the range commonly used for proof, the term has no use in wine production or on wine labels.
MUST: Unfermented grape juice. Extracted by crushing or ~ grape juice in the cask or vat before it is converted into wine.
MUSTY: Moldy or mildewy smell. Resulting from wine made of moldy grapes, stored in improperly cleaned tanks and barrels, or contaminated by a poor cork.
Marc - The material that remains in the wine press after the ~ has taken place. This material is composed of skins, pulp, and pips.
Must - The mixture of unfermented grape juice and grape solids that is created at the initial crushing of harvested grapes.
Grapes must be harvested carefully, for the proper amount of fungal growth must be present on each bunch. Often harvests are done in several sweeps, picking out the correct grapes on each pass. During ~s, it is actually the later ~s that give the best wine, ...
After stems are removed, breaking the grape skins prior to ~ and fermentation. The term also applied to the season of the year (during harvest) when this occurs.
A machine that breaks open grapes and usually de-stems them as well.
Since the grape juice is mostly water, ~ the grapes while they're frozen yields a very small amount of highly concentrated, high-sugar juice that's made into exquisitely sweet wine. The concept originated in Germany, but Canada has surpassed Germany in the quantity of production of Icewine.
Free run - Wine that separates from grape skins with little or no ~. The wine is generally higher in quality, fruitier and lower in tannins than ~s that follow.
Scale for measuring and ex~ the alcohol content of high alcohol liquids. Proof is never used for wine. The proof of a liquor is twice its alcohol content, i.e., 80 proof = 40% alcohol.
Pomace. the collection of skins and seeds of the grapes after ~.
Powerful. Describes a wine of intensity and strength.
Premier cru. a first growth-the highest quality vineyard. Although in Burgundy, Grand crus rank higher.
After gentle ~ the juice is settled overnight and racked to small French oak barrels of which 35% are new. We also put the wine through malo-lactic fermentation, which helps soften the wine and give a nice creamy texture.
Amigne wines are produced by drying the grapes before ~ them, concentrating flavors and giving a sweet wine, one which retains all the delicate citrus scent found in the drier styles.
Marc (Fr.) Solids, such as dry skins and pips, left after ~. Also used to describe the spirit made by distilling the marc.
Marque auxillire See 'MA'.
Mature Tasting term indicating a wine that has aged sufficiently to be ready to drink at its best.
A deluxe version is often referred to as cuvée speciale; Vin de Cuvee refers to wine from the first ~. Outside Champagne the term cuvée is also used for still wines. It may refer to wines blended from different vineyards, or even different varieties.
The high quality juice that runs from the FERMENTATION tank without ~.
Any vine crossing where one or both "parents" is not from the wine vine, VITIS VINIFERA.
deep: Essentially the same as concentrated, ex~ the fact that the wine is rich, full of extract, and mouth filling.
 Cuvée A wine blended from several vats or batches, or from a selected vat. Also used in Champagne to denote the juice from the first ~ of a batch of grapes.
 Decanting The process of pouring wine from its bottle into a decanter to separate the sediment from the wine.
White wine can be made from black grapes by simply ~ the grapes and separating the clear juice from the pigmented skins before fermentation. This is the basis of "White Zinfandel" table wines and "Blanc de Noirs" sparkling wines.
In the making of red wine, one talks about a "Vin de Goutte", a wine drawn directly from the barrel, in other words it is obtained before the ~ of the wine harvest. It is the opposite of "Vin de Presse" which is poured from the press.
Grafting : ...
The fermenting (or soon to be fermenting) grape juice and all of the solid material, such as skins, stems or pulp, produced by ~.
Describes the moldy, damp basement smell or taste associated with cork taint.
Mosto Flor or Mosto Yema is free run juice flowing from grapes crushed by their own weight without any mechanical ~. Mosto Primera or Primeras is the Must extracted through light pressure. Mosto Segundo or Segundas is the juice extracted by applying maximum pressure.
Spit, by pursing your lips and com~ the wine out with your tongue.
The Bonny Doon winery in California makes a wine it calls Muscat Canelli Vin de Glaciere (wine of the icebox, essentially) which achieves the concentration levels of noble rot by freezing the grapes, then ~ them immediately so that only the sugary liquid-which has a lower freezing ...
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Stemmy: a term applying either to wines actually having been fermented in contact with their stems, or to wines which, owing to an unusually brutal crushing or ~, contain an excess of the bitter tannins of the stems.
Amarone: A succulent higher-alcohol red wine hailing from the Veneto region in northern Italy; made primarily from Corvina grapes dried on racks before ~.
During the winemaking process the wine must be separated from the grape solids i.e. pips, skins, pulp and stalks. It may be run off (free-run wine) to give a higher quality wine than that obtained by ~ the cap, (press wine). Press wine contains more tannin.
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The juice (free run must) is sent to settle in containers. The rest of the grapes is pressed as quickly as possible. Air is the enemy of white wine. At its contact the wine oxidizes or becomes colored. The must from ~ is added to the free run must.
The abundance of pips, or seeds, contribute to the strong, bitter tannins associated with the wine. Modern winemaker try to avoid the excess tannins with gentle and slow ~s. Grignolino has two Denominazione di origine controllata (DOCs) that produce wine from it-Asti and Monferrato Casale ...
Noted for producing somewhat light, yet deeply colored and strongly varietal, wines described as having a "Burgundian" character. Usually needs the help of carbonic maceration or hot-~ to enhance quality. Birds find the small berries very attractive. Also known under the name Foch.
Pomace: The residue of pressed pulp, skins and pips of apples, grapes or any fruit after ~. When pressed under great pressure, a pomace cake or brick results.
See also: What is the meaning of Wine, Grape, Press, Region, White?